Of The Christian Period

Rogart Scotland Map

One of most stable equilibrium, but it may also have been to avoid injury from the point of the long p n. The second example is on the bottom panel of the side of the broken cross-shaft in Kells1 churchyard. The exact date of this monument is unknown, but it is probably of the ninth or tenth century. The subject on the panel is the Baptism of Christ, with the sources of the two imaginary rivers, Jor and Dan, which, when united, were supposed to contribute their waters to the Jordan, indicated...

The Chronology Of The Bronze Age In Europe

Actual dates in years can only be ascertained by means of historical documents, and therefore no chronology of the ages of Stone, Bronze, and Iron is possible except where contact can be established between the prehistoric or non-historic races living in those stages of culture n Northern and Cenrral Europe, and the more advanced civilisations on the shores of the Mediterranean and n Asia. Long before direct contact took place between the northern barbarians and the Egyptians, Assyrians,...

Kzszszszsz

b, c, and d Different Methods of Shading a . r Surface Pattern, produced by repeating 6 . A few new patterns see Pig. 6 may be produced by placing the chevron with the point of the V facing to the right or left, thus, lt or gt , instead of upwards or downwards, thus, A V thus, gt gt 4 The same as a , but with a horizontal line through the points of the V's. r The same as a , but shaded, o' The same as bl, but shaded. Figs. 7 to io give the triangular paiterns, plain and shaded, produced by...

Naaaaa

Fig. 9. a Double Border, composed of Triangles, with the points of the Triangles in one row falling in the centres of the bases of Triangles in the row above. b Surface Pattern, composed of Triangles, arranged n the same way as in the preceding. Fig. 10. and b The Patterns shown on Fig. 9. shaded. The patterns derived from the lozenge are shown on Figs, ii to 18. Fig. II. a Lozenge Border, composed of two sets of Chevrons, with their ooints facing in opposite directions. 6 The same as fa , but...

Pagan Celtic Art In The Bronze

Pagan Burial Urn Symbols The Squirrel

General nature of the materials available for the study of the art of the bronze age in britain. and the decorative motives employed AS we have already observed, the Goidelic Celts were ip the Bronze Age stage of culture when they landed in Britain. Let us now i iqu re into the nature of the materials available for the study of the Pagan Celtic art iit the Bronze Age. The remains of this period may be classified, according to the nature of the finds, as follows 2 Remains on inhabited and...

List Of Plates

' Grave of a Gaulish warrior at Sesto Calende, Italy . . Bronze fibula of La Tt gt ne type from the cemeteries of the Marne . Bronze armlet of the La Tene period from Germany . . Bronze armlet of the La Tine period from Losgirod Vaud . . Bronze armlet of the La Tene period from the cemeteries of the Marne Gaulish helmet of bronze from Borru Marne . Cinerary urn of Bronze Age from Lake, Wilts, now in the British Museum. Height I ft ins. Bronze Age nrn of Incense Cup type from Aldhourne, Wilts,...

Leading Characteristics Ok Tiie Lateceltic Style Of

Once the eye of a trained archaeologist has become familiar with the general appearance of the art products of the Late-Cehic school, it is comparatively easy for him to recognise other products of the same school almost by intuition but he would find it a much more difficult task if he were asked to define exactly what the peculiarities are by which he is enabled to distinguish this particular style from any other. Most of the decorative elements composing the style are of so fantastic and...

The Celt As Described By Greek And Roman Authors

The Celts make their first appearance in history at the end of the sixth century B.C., when, however, they are referred to not by their name as a people but by the name of the country they occupied. Thus, IIecata us of Miletus, writing about 509 B.C., mentions Marseilles as being a Ligurian city near the Celtic region.1 Herodotus, writing half a century later, is the first historian who uses the word kXtoV Celt as distinguished from Ke -riK,'i the Celtic region . In the two passages'- in which...

Evidence As To Dates Of Finds Of Objects Of The Early Iron Age In Great Britain

The finds of objects of the Early Iron Age to which an approximate date can be assigned are as follows 1 Finds associated with burials of a particular kind. 2 Finds associated with objects of the Bronze Age. 3 Finds associated with objects of early Hallstatt type. 1 i.e. have from four to ten localities where Late-Celtic finds have been made. 4 Finds associated with fibula or other objects of La Tene type. 5 Finds of objects associated with imported articles of Gra co-Italic fabric. 6 Finds of...

Pagan Celtic Art In Tiie Early Iron

Technical processes employed during the early iron age in britain THE fact must never be lost sight of that the picture presented to our mind of any particular prehistoric stage of culture mast necessarily be extremely imperfect, since the extent of our knowledge is limited entirely by the number of relics which specially favourable circumstances have preserved from destruction. Of the textile fabrics of the Late-Celtic period, for i istance, hardly anything is known, although we are certain...

J

And repeated in a vertical row, we get the pattern shown below. and repeated in a vertical row, we get the pattern shown below. By making pointed ends to the loops forming the knots and sweetening the curves of the bands between each knot the appearance of the whole is changed, and its development from the pla't disguised. Almost all geometrical ornament is capable of conveying several different impressions to the mind according to the way it is observed by the eye for the time being, and the...

Detail Of Ornament On The Tara Brooch

Ancient Scotland Ornament

The ring, of which kind three specimens in the Museum of the Ro gt al Irish Academy at Dublin are llustrated, in order to show the way of ornamenting the expansions with one, four, and five raised bosses, having zoomorphic designs on the background R.I.A. photos, B 163 and B 164 . The area of the head of the pin available for decoration is increased by making it into a cylindrical tube. In the final stage of the development, of the pen-annalar brooch 11 Ireland it ceased to be penannular, if we...

Technical Processes And Materials Employed During The Christian Celtic Feriop In Great Britain

Thar Motifs And Patterns

ECCLESIASTICAL and other MSS. written on sheets of vellum and bound up in the form of a book were introduced into this country with Christianity. The materials and tools used by the Celtic scribes and illuminators probably did not differ to any great extent from those used throughout Europe during the Middle Ages. The parchment of the Irish MSS. is, however, generally much thicker1 than that of the Carlovingian and other foreign MSS. The letters in the Irish MSS. of the best period, such as the...

Other Side Newgrange Entrance Stone

Newgrange Tumulus

Fig. 17. a Bar Lattice-work-Surfacc Pattern the same as Fig. 15 a , but with diagonal bars instead of lines. b The same as a , but shaded. Fig. 18. a Surface Pattern, produced by repeating Fig. 11 r . Sj The same as , but shaded. The patterns derived from the saltire are shown on Fig. 19. a Saltire Border Pattern. b, c, d Saltire Border Pattern, shaded in different ways. e The same as a , but with bars instead of lines. The patterns derived from the hexagon are shown on Figs. 20 and 21. a...

Symbolical Figuresubjects

Celtics Migration Map

We have already mentioned most of the figure-subjects to be found in the Iliberno-Saxon illuminated MSS., and on the Irish ecclesiastical metalwork. It remains therefore only now to take the sculptured monuments into consideration. It was in Ireland alone that a recognised cycle of scriptural figure-subjects was adopted for the decoration of the crosses and that in nearly all cases the ornament was relegated to a subordinate position. In Scotland and Wales, on the contrary, Scripture scenes are...

Intkklacedwork

Cividale Rachis

The interlaced ornament used in Celtic art may be divided into the following classes 1 Regular plaitwork, without any bitaks. 2 Broken plaitwork, with breaks made in an regular Interlaced-work s the predom' lant motive of the Celtic style of the Christian period. It lasted longer in t lt me than any other motive, and its geograph .cal distribution extends over a larger area. It is very seldom that one motive is used by itself for the decoration of a stone monument, metal object, or page of a...

Pagan Celtic Art In The Early Iron

Pagan Celtic Ireland

GENERAL NATURE OF THE MATERIALS AVAILABLE FOR THE STUI gt Y OF THE DECORATIVE ART OF THE EARLY IRON AGE IN GREAT BRITAIN THE materials available for the study of Late-Celtic art in this country may be classified as follows Metalwork. Arms of Offence and Defence. Horse-trappings. Chariot Fittings. Personal Ornaments. Toilet Appliances. Domestic Appliances. Musical Instruments. Objects for Religious Use. Objects of Unknown Use. Pottery and Glass. Sepulchral LTrns. Vessels for Domestic Use. Beads...

General Character Of Tiie Finds Of Objects Of The Early Iron

Driffield Symbol

The general character of the iinds of objects of the Early Iron Age is almost as varied as the circumstances which have led to their recovery from oblivion, and they may be classified according to their nature, as follows a Remains found on inhabited or fortified sites. 3 Hoards of objects purposely concealed. Sepulchral Remains. The sepulchral deposits of the Early Iron Age differ greatly, both as regards the methods of burial adopted in each case, and the kind of grave-goods placed with the...

Bronze Iibula From River Chuun Now In The British Museum

Celtic Torque Sale

BRONZE FIBULA l ROM RIVER CHURN NOW 1 THF BRITISH MUSEUM SIDE VI KW, SCALE - I .INEAR FRONT Vir-, SCAI r - I.IM.AK fully ornamented with Late-Celtic flamboyant patterns. The knob, which is the survival of the collar already referred to, has here assumed a highly ornamental form resembling two floriated capitals of columns placed together. The specimen represented on p. 104 is one of a pair of silver-gilt fibula , similar to the preceding, hut larger and without the chain, although possessing...

Southern Pictland

Primitive Scandinavian Art

Inchbrayock now at Montrose . ,, Monitieth now at Edinburgh . ,, Woodwray now at Abbotsford . ,, DALRIADIC SCOTLAND Ardchattan ... . Argyllshire. Shetland. Caithness. Sutherland. i ERECT CROSS-SLAB IK ABRRLF.MXO CHURCHYARD, FORFARSHIRE ERECT CROSS-SLAB IK ABRRLF.MXO CHURCHYARD, FORFARSHIRE Cross at Prnmon, Anglesey L rawn by Ha nd Huches Scaie ,V linear The erect cross-slabs of the Isle of Man show a mixture of Celtic and Scandinavian art, but there are a few which appear to be purely Celtic,...

Invasion Of Britain By Goidelic Celts In The Bronze

The aborigines of Europe, who were driven westward by the successive waves of Aryan conquest, appear to have been in the Neolithic stage of culture, and they are identified by Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins with the Iberians mentioned by Strabo. Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins gives a map in his Early Man in Britain p. 318 showing the relative distribution of the Iberic, Celtic, and Belgic races i 1 the historic period. In this map the Iberians occupy the north of Africa, the west of Spain and France, the country...

Scale In Inches

Celtic Jewellery Found Pembrokeshire

Engraved Step Ornament on piece of wood found at the Glastonbury Lake Village CELTIC RT OF THE CHRISTIAN PERIOD a.d. 450 to 1066 the introduction ok christianity into britain, and its ekkect on native art IT must always be borne in mind that the conversion of the inhabitants of Britain from Paganism to Christianity was a gradual process, extending over a period of several hurdred years. Almost as soon as the new religion began to take deep root in England it was swept away by the Saxon...

Four Mem Placed Strastika Fashion On Recumbent Monument At Meigik Perthshire

SPIRAL ORNAMENT ON FRAGMENT OF SCULPTURED STONE FROM TARBET, ROSS-SHIRE NOW IN I HE EDINBURGH MUSEUM 2 symbolically, and 3 decoratively. As cases of the first kind of treatment we have the hunting scenes,1 battle scenes,2 men driving in chariots8 drawn by horses, groups of ar mals, etc., on the erect cross-slabs of Scotland and on the bases of some of the Irish and Welsh crosses. Although these subjects may have some symbolism behind them, yet all the living creatures represented are treated...

Bronze Ar M Ilt Of The La Tfne Period From The Cemeteries Of He Marne

Celtic Ornament 400

Marnian by the French archaeologists because the principal remains of this period have been found in the cemeteries of the Department of the Marne. A list of seventy-two such Marnian cemeteries some of which contained as many as 450 graves is given by A. Bertrand in his Arch ologie Celtique et Gauloise, p. 358. The objects obtained from these cemeteries are fully illustrated in the Dictionnaire Arch ologique de la Gaule, ard in Leon Morel s La Champagne Ornament on Pronze Sword-sheath from La...

V

Abercorn Cross Interlace

Method of making breaks in plaitwork Method of making breaks in plaitwork break or 2 A can be joined to I and C to B, forming a horizontal break. The decorative effect of the plait is thus entirely altered by running two of the meshes between the cords into one. By continuing the process all the knots most commonly used in Celtic decorative art may be derived from a simple plait. Let us proceed to trace the process of the evolution of knotwork out of plaitvvork by actual instances taken from...

Finds Of Celtic Coins In Bkitain

The earliest native coinage of Britain belongs to the Iron Age, and dates from 200 to 150 B.C. Sir John Evans has collected together all the known facts relating to the numismatics of this period in his Coins of the Ancient Britons, and gives excellent maps showing the geographical distribution of the finds. Prof. John Rhys, in his Celtic Britain p. 19 , says i The coinage of Britain had been modelled in the first instance after that of Gaul, which, in its turn, can be traced to the Phoc amp an...

Amongst the objects most characteristic of the Hallstatt culture are

Hallstatt Fibulas

1 Daggers, or short swords, with a pointed blade of -on and a bronze handle having two little projections at the top terminating in round knobs and resembling the antennai of an insect. 2 Long double-edged swords with an iron blade made in imitation of the leaf-shaped swords of the Bronze Age, having the edges slightly curved outwards in the middle, but not having so sharp a point as the Bronze Age sword, and being murh longer. The hilts have a massive pommel encrusted with ivory and amber,...