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thin metal joined together in the middle by a bulbous collar. The upper tube is joined to the head at the top by a similar bulbous collar, and the lower tube is joined to the ferrule at the bottom by a third bulbous collar.

One of the most perfect of the Irish crozers is preserved at Lismore Castle,1 Co. Waterford. It bears an inscription showing that it was made by Nectan, the artisan, for Niall, son of MacAeducain. Mac Mic Aeducain was Bishop of Lismore from a.d. 1090 to 1:13. Another tine crozier in the British Museum2 has an inscription asking a prayer for Maelfinnia and Condulig. The former was Bishop of Kells, and died in a. fx. 967. Condulig was an ecclesiastic of the same monastery, and died in a.d. 1047.

The best examples of uninscribed croziers are the croziers of Clonmacnois3 and of St. Berach in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin, and a crozier now ;n the possession of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Killarney. Besides the complete croziers mentioned there are several heads and other portions of croziers in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, and in the Edinburgh Museum of Antiquities may be seen the head of the crozier of St. Fillan,4 which has an unusually interesting history.

The decoration of the Celtic croziers is concentrated on the head, the ferrule, and the collars round the straight portion of the staff. Most of the croziers have a zoomorphic cresting3 on the outside curve of the head, sometimes consisting of a procession of

1 Petrie's Christian Inscriptions in the Irish Language, vol. ii., p. 11S; anil H O'Neill's Fine Arts of Ancient Ireland, p. 42.

2 Petrie'.s Christian Inscriptions in the Irish language, vol. ii., p. 116.

2 Miss M. Stokes' Eatly Christian Art in Ireland, p. «05.

4 Dr. J Anderson's Scotland in Early Christian Times, 1st ser., p. 219.

• As on the croziers of Lismore, Clonmacnois, and Dysert.

beasts one behind the other, and sometimes only having terminal beasts' heads at each end.1 The flat portion of the crook of the crozier at the end is decorated in some cases with the head of the saint or bishop, and a crystal setting below.2 Zoomorphism enters very largely into the ornamentation of the Celtic croziers, and the beasts with only two toes instead of three on the Crozier of Clormacnois obviously betray their Scandinavian orig:i( by this detail. The decoration of the heads of the croziers is treated in at least three different ways: (i) the head of the Lismore crozier is divided into rectangular panels with raised bosses of enamel at the intersections of the bands, which form the divisions between the panels; (2) the heads of the crosiers of Dysert, Blathmac, and St. Filian are divided into lozenge-shaped panels by a sort of raised lattice-work; and (3) the head of the crozier of Clonrnacnois is not divided into panels, but the surface entirely covered with zoomorphic strap-work.

The croziers are all of the eleventh century or later, and their decoration has little n common with that of the early illuminated MSS.

"Cumdachs," or book-shr nes, are peculiar to Ireland. Three MSS. still in e:x stence are known, from historical evidence, to have had cumdachs, although they have been lost.

The Book of Durrow enshrined A.D. 877 to 914.

1 As on 9t. Filian's crozier.

2 As on St. Fillan's crozier.

The existing cuindarhs are as follows :—

In the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy.

Cumdach of Molaise's Gospels . a.r>. i'Ooi to 1025. ,, ,, the Stowe Missal . A.n. 1023. ,, ,, Columba's Psalter . a.d. 1084. ,, ,, St. Patrick's Gospels.

In the Library of Trinity College, Dublin.

The cumdachs are simply rectangular boxes, sufficiently large to hold the MS., made either of wood or bronze and plated with silver. The decoration of the principal face of the cumdach is generally arranged in the form of a cross, the treatment being much the same as iii the ornamental pages of the MSS. of the Gospels. The cross on the cumdach of Molaise's Gospels is formed of a flat silver plate with panels pierced right through the thickness of the metal, and filled "n with interlaced patterns ir. fiiigree-work. The cross in the middle is surrounded by the Symbols of the Four Evangelists, with their names inscribed at the side of each. The centre of the cross and the ends of the four arms are ornamented with settings of crystal.

On one of the narrow faces of this cumdach are some very curious figures of two ecclesiastics, one holding a bell and the other a pastoral staff; and a harper, with an angel above his head, between them.

The cumdach of the Stowe Missal has upon the principal face a cross within a rectangular frame. The centre of the cross is ornamented with a crystal setT,*ng, and the recessed panels of the background are filled in with a peculiar kind of triangular and square chequer-

work made of pierced metal plates, p

The cumdach of Dimma's Book has also on the principal face a cross surrounded by a rectangular frame, and ornamented with thirteen crystal settings. The four recessed panels of the background of the cross are filled in with zoomorphic designs in the same style as those on the High Cross of Tuam,1 Co. Gal way, which is of about the same period, having been erected in a.d. 1123.

The. relic-shrines of the Celtic Church are of two kinds, namely, (1) those made in the shape of the portion of the body of the saint enshrined; and (2) those made in the shape of a small oratory or house with a steep pitched roof having hipped ends. As an example of the first kind we have the Shrine of St. Lachtin's Arm, a.d. 1106.2

The most beautiful and perfect example of a reliquary in the form of a small oratory is the one now in the possession of Sir Archibald Grant, and preserved at Monymusk House,3 Aberdeenshire. It is a wooden box, hollowed out of the solid, and covered with plates of bronze and silver. It is decorated wjth enamel, settings of precious stones, and raised circular medallions and rectangular plaques of interlaced-work on a chased background of zocimorphic designs. Another reliquary of the same kind was found in Lough Erne,4 between Enniskillen and Belleek, in 1891, and belongs to Mr. T. I'lunkett, of Enniskillen. It is 7 inches long by 32- inches wide by 5J- inches high, and is made of plates of bronze covering an inner box scoopcd out. of two solid pieces of yew-wood. The decoration,

1 II. O'Neill's Sculptured Crosses of Ancient Ireland, pi. 12.

1 Dr. J. Anderson's Scotland in Early Christian Times, 1st scr., p. 249.

4 Journ. R. Soc. Ant. of Ireland', 5th ser., vol. ii. (1892), p. 349.

CELTIC QUADRANGULAR BELL OF BRONZE WITH ZOSMORPHIC HANDLES FROM LLANGWYNODL CHURCH, CARNARVONSHIRE; NOW IN THE POSSESSION OF W. CORBET YALE-JONES-PARRY, ESQ., OF MADRYN CASTLE, PWILHF.LI

BRONZE RELIQUARY FROM LOWER LOUGH ERNE; NOW IN THE POSSESSION OF T. PLUNKETT, ESQ., OF ENNISKILLEN

BRONZE RELIQUARY FROM LOWER LOUGH ERNE; NOW IN THE POSSESSION OF T. PLUNKETT, ESQ., OF ENNISKILLEN

which consists of interlaced-work, is concentrated upon the ridge-piece of the roof; upon a band concealing the joint between th2 eaves of the roof and the sides ; upon six circular raised medallions, one on each of the longest sloping faces of the roof and two on each of the longest sides; and upon the hinges at each end of the box to which the bars for suspending the shrine round the neck of its hereditary keeper were attached. There is a third reliquary, like the two just described, from Norway, in the Copenhagen Museum.1 It has raised circular medallions arranged i 1 the same way as on the Lough Erne shrine, but they are decorated with spiral designs, and the background, instead of being plain, is covered with elaborate interlaced-work. An inscription in later Runes on this shrine reads " Ran-vaig owns this casket." The Edinburgh Museum possesses a fourth shrine of the same class found ia the Shannon- in a very dilapidated condition.

Dr. J. Anderson3 has pointed out the identity of the form of the Temple at Jerusalem, as represented in the Book of Kells, with the form of this particuiar class of reliquary.

The Breac Moedoc,4 or shrine of St. Mogue, from Drumlane, now in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy at Dublin, resembles the reliquaries of the Monymusk type in shape except that the roof is gabled instead of being hipped, and the method of applying the decoration also is entirely different. It is 7 J inches long by 8£ inches wide by 3! inches wide, and is made of bronze, with decorations of bronze giit, enamel,

J. J. A. Worsaae's Nora'iske Uldsager i det Kongelige Museum t Kfibenhavn, p. 129, Figf. 524.

2 Or. J. Anderson's Scotland -n Early Christian Times, 1st ser., p. 246.

and glass. The front is divided into rectangular panels, each containing a group of figures of male and female saints numbering twenty-one altogether; and on one of the gabled ends is a bearded figure playing a harp on which a bird is perched. The back and bottom of the shrine are ornamented with cruciform patterns in pierced work, as on the shrines of the Bell of St. Patrick's Will, of the St owe Missal, and of Dimma's Book.

The relic-shrine of St. Manchan1 differs from all those previously described in being considerably larger, and in being shaped Hktt ihe gabled roof of a house, but without any house; that is to say, ii has two rectangular faces meeting a horizontal ridge and two nearly vertical triangular ends. It was formerly in the keeping of the ancient Irish family of Mooney, of the Doon, but it is now preserved 'n the Roman Catholic Church of Boher, in the parish of Lemanaghan, near Clara, King's Co. The Shrine of St. Manchan is i foot 11 inches long by i foot i inch wide by i foot 7 inches high. Ihe framework of the shrine is made of yew boards. The front and back are each ornamented with an equal-armed cross having large circular raised bosses in the centre, and on the ends of the four arms. The four spaces forming the background of each of the crosses are filled in with rows of small figures fixed to the bronze plate behind with rivets. The front, back, and two ends of the shrine are partially surrounded by a border of zoomorphic ornament. The bosses :n relief of the crosses on the front and back, and the recessed triangular panels on the two ends are also elaborately decorated with zoomorphs. At each of the four corners

of the base is a circular ring, probably for carrying the shrine about. The clamps of the rings, the borders round the bottom of the shrine, and the narrow parts of the arms of the crosses have step-patterns in red and yellow enamel upon them. The whole of the bronze was originally gilt. The style of the ornament is so similar to that on the Cross of Cong that we shall not be far wrong if we attribute the shrine of St. Manchan to the same period, namely, the twelfth century.

There is only a ¡-ingle example of a processional cross belonging to the Celtic Church now in existence, namely, the Cross of Cong1 in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy at Dublin. It :s 2 feet 6 inches high by 1 foot inches across the arms by if inches thick. The cross is of oak covered with copper plates, and has a boss of rock-crystal i' the centre, beneath which the portion of the true cross was enshrined. The outer margin of the cross is formed by a roll moulding of silver, with eighteen smal! enamelled knobs at intervals to emphasise the cuspings of the outline of the cross. The face of the cross within the margin is divided into two rows of panels by a narrow-longitudinal band in the middle of the arms, with enamelled bosses of enamel in relief and rircular silver discs alternately marking the points where the crossbars branch off at right angles to the central stem, so as to divide the surface into panels. The eight panels surrounding the boss of rock-crystal in the centre of the cross are filled in with scrolls of gold filigree-work,

1 Pmc. R.I.A., vol. ii., p. 113, and vol. iv., p. 572 ; Petrie's Christian Inscriptions in the Irish Language, vol. ii., p. 118; Miss M. Stokes' Early Christian Art in Ireland, p. 108 ; and Journ. R. Soc. Ant. Ireland, vol. xxxi. (1901), p. 40.

and the remaining thirty-eight panels on the arms and shaft are tilled in with zoomorphic designs in cast bronze gilt, riveted to the copper plates beneath. At the bottom of the cross is a beast's head with a bulbous projection between it and the socket to receive the staff. The bulbous portion is ornamented with small bosses of blue enamel and panels of zoomorphic. designs. The general effect, of tne whole is extremely rich, and shows great artistic feeling. The prevalence of the zoomorphic element in the design and the arrangement of the panels reminds us of the croziers of the same period, more especially the one at Lismore Castle, Co. Waterford.

The inscriptions on the Cross of Cong, of which the first is in Latin (twice repeated) and the remaining four in Irish, may be thus rendered in English :—

(1) "This Cross covers the Cross on which the Saviour of the World suffered."

(2) "Pray for Murdoch O'Duffy, the Senior of Erin."

(3) " Pray for Tur'och O'Connor, for the King of Plrin, for whom this shrine was made."

(4) "Pray for Donnell M'Flannagar. O'Di-ffy, for the

Bishop of Connaught, for the successor of Coman and Ciaran, under whose superintendence this shrine was made."

(5) "Pray for Maeljesu MacBratdan O'Echan, who made this shrine."

Murdoch O'Duffy, Archbishop of Connaught, died in A.r>. 1150, and it is recorded in the Annals of Innis-fallen that ir. the year 1123 a bit of the trae cross came into Ireland and was enshrined by Turlogh O'Connor, thus fixing the date of the Cross of Cong some time in the first half of the twelfth century. The cross was removed from Tuam to Cong either by Archbishop O'Duffy or King Roderic O'Conor, and was fonnd there in 1839, when it was purchased by Prof. Mac Cullach and presented by him to the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy.

Chalices of earlier date than the Norman Conquest are of extreme rarity either in Great Britain or on the Continent. Perhaps the three most ancient specimens abroad are (1) the chalice, found with gold coins of Justinian (a.d. 508 to 527), at Gourdon,1 Chalons-sur-Saone, and now :n the National Library at Paris; (2) the chalice uf Tassilo,2 Duke of Bavaria (a.d. 757 to 781'), at Kremsmiinster n Lower Austria; and (3) the chalice of St Gozlin3 of Toul (a.d. 922 to 962), now in the treasury of the Cathedral of Nancy. The first and last of these have two handles. The chalice of Tassilo, however, has no handles. It is profusely decorated with nterlaced-work, zoomorphic designs, and figure subjects, and has round the foot the following inscription in capital letters, not unlike those used in the Iliberno-Saxon MSS :—

" + tassilo dvx fort is lvitp1rc virga rkgalis."

The lady referred to was Luitberga, wife of Duke Tassilo, and daughter of Desiderius, the last king of the Lombards. The chalice is 10 inches high and is made of copper ornamented with gold, silver, and niello. The figures are placed in oval medallions round the bowl and the base. The principal figure is that of Christ giving the benediction, and the remainder appear to be those of saints. The style of the

1 De Caumont's Abcctfdaire d'Archfologie Architecture Religieuse, p. 117.

2 I)r. R. Miinro's Bosnia-Herzegovina and Dalmatian p. 292.

decoration resembles that of the Irish metalwork to a certain extent, and the chalice of Tassilo may very possibly have been made abroad under the direction of some Irish monk.

Only one metal chalice of undoubted Irish work has been preserved until the present time, namely, the Ardagh Chalice1 in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy at Dublin. It was found in i8b8 in a rath in the townland of Reerasta, in the parish of Ardagh, Co. Limerick. The chalice belongs to the two-handled type, and has a hemispherical bowl, a very short cylindrical stem, and a conical base with a flat rim round the bottom. It is 7 inches high by g} inches ;n diameter at the top, and 6\ inches in diameter at the bottom, the bowl being 4 inches deep and of sufficient capacity to hold three pints of liquid. The chalice is composed of gold (x oz. 2 dwts.), silver (20 ozs. 13 dwts.), bronze (g ozs.;, lead, enamel, glass, amber, and mica. No less than 354 different pieces, including 20 rivets, are used in the construction of the vessel.

The exterior of the bowl of the Ardagh chalice is inscribed with the names of the Twelve Apostles 1,1 Hiberno-Saxon capitals, finely engraved on the silver. The forms of the letters correspond with those used in the Books of Kells, Dimma, St. Chad, Durham, and Mac Regol.

The raised decoration of the chalice, which is made in separate pieces and fixed on with rivets, is concentrated on the follow ing parts :—

(1) A horizontal band just below the rim and running through the handles.

1 Pet rie's Christian Inscriptions in the Irish Language, vol. ii., p. 123; Trans. R.I.A., vol. xxiv., p. 433; Miss M. Stokes' Early Christian Art in Ireland, p. 80- 88.

BRONZE FIBULA WITH PLAITWORK ANI) LATE-CELTIC ORNAMENT FROM THE ARDAklLLEN CKANNOG, NEAR STROK.ESTOWN, CO. ROSCOMMON ; NOW IN THE MUSEUM OF THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY, DUBLIN

DETAIL OF ORNAMENT ON THE UNDER-SIDE OF THE IOOT OF THE ARDAOIl CHALICE IN THE MUSEUM OF THE ROYAL IRISH ACADlim DUBLIN

(2) The two handles.

(3) Two circular medallions on the lower side of the bowl midway between the handles.

(5) The fiat rim at the bottom of the base.

(6; The under side of the flat rim round the base.

(7) The circular medallion in the centre of the under side of the conical base.

The ornament consists of nterlaced-work. step-patterns, key-patterns, spiralwork, zoomorphic designs, and scrollwork, arranged in panels after the usual Celtic fashion. The step patterns are confined to the plaques and bosses of enamel, and the other patterns are executed in delicate gold filigree-work on a repousse background of gold. On the under side of the fiat rim round the base panels of most beautifully plaited silver wire are introduced. Amber is used on the handles for the borders round the raised bosses of enamel, and there is a narrow ring of the same material between the concentric rings of ornament in the middle of the under side of the base. The heads of the rivets by which the circular medallions on the sides of the bowl are fixed are concealed by two small bosses of blue glass and two of amber. The heads of the rivets for securing the two handles in place are disguised in a similar manner. The stem and supports of the chalice are of bronze gilt, highly ornamented. They are attached to the bowl by a bronze-gilt ball, with a strong square tang, and most ingeniously fastened by an iron bolt which secures all together. A plate of lead is 'nserted between the upper and under sides of the flat rim round the base to give weight and stability. The flat rim round the base is ornamented with gold and bronzc-gilt piaques of open-

work on a background of mica, ;-n order to show up the beauty of the patterns. The flat rim round the base has on its under side, between the panels of ornament, rectangular tablets of blue glass, underneath which are decorated pieces of wrought-silver, which give a brilliant appearance in a strong light. In the centre of the under side of the base is a circular setting of rock-crystal. The rim of the bowl of the chalice is of brass.

Enough has beer, said of the elaborate nature of the construction and ornamentation of the Ardagh Chalice to show that it is a masterpiece of Celtic art metalwork of the best period. The style of the lettering of the inscription upon it and the general character of the decorative features indicate that it belongs to the same school as the Book of Keiis, the Durham Book, St. Chad's Gospels, and the Tara Brooch, and cannot consequently be of much later date than the eighth century. It will be noticed that in the decoration of the Ardagh Chalice spiral patterns of the best quality are present, and that the zoomorphs are kept under proper restraint so as not to swamp the whole design. Both these points are an ndication of early date.

There are at least three examples known of bronze plaques with representations upon them of the Crucifixion treated in the archaic Irish fashion. The most interesting of these was found at Athlone,1 and is now in the Museum of the Irish Academy in Dublin. The Saviour is shown wearing a tunic, the surface of which is almost entirely covered with spirals, key-patterns, and interlaced-work. Another smaller and less ornamental plaque with the CrucL.xi.on may be seen in the 1 Dr. J. Stuarts Sculptured Stones of Scotland, vol. ii., p!. io.

same museum:1 and a third, belonging to Mr. M. J. Arketell, has been illustrated by Prof. J. O. Westwood in his Miniatures and Ornaments of the Anglo-Saxon and Irish MSS.2

Leaving Celtic ecclesiastical metalwork, we come to personal ornaments, which, although exhibiting the same style of decoration, were not necessarily intended to be worn by persons taking part in the ceremonies of the Church. These personal ornaments consist of pins, brooches, and buckles. We have previously given a list of the hammer-headed p-.is, which may either be Pagan or Christian. Another peculiarly Celtic type of pin consisted of three parts, namely, (1) a long pin ; (2} a kite-shaped pendant ; and (3) a short bar hinged at one end to the top of the pin, and at the other to the rounded top of the pendant. A remarkably fine pin of ibis description was found about 1883 at Clonmacnois,3 King's Co., and is now in the possession of the Rev. Timothy Lee, of Limerick. The pin is l\ inches long, the coupling-bar f inch long, and the kite-shaped pendant 2| "nchcs long by ii inches wide by £ inch thick. The whole is of silver, decorated with gold filigree, enamel, niello, and settings of claret-coloured glass or precious stone. The coupbng-bar has on one side a lozenge-shaped panel of filigree-work, and on the other an nter-laced pattern in niello. The front of the pendant is ornamented with a cross having a large rectangular setting of glass in the centre, three smaller rectangular settings at the ends of the top and two side arms, and a small triangular setting at the bottom of the shaft. The background of the cross consists of four panels

3 Journ. K, Soc. Ant. Ireland, ser. 5, vol. i. (1890 1), p. jib.

of interlaced filigree-work, three of which are missing. The point of the kite-shaped pendant terminates in a beast's head. On the back of the pendant there is a cross of similar shape to that on the front, but with an ornamental border of spiralwork round it, and the whole design executed inj niello. At the pointed end at the bottom is fixed a small ring through which passes a silver plaited chain of Tricl inopoly-work, like the one attached to the Tara Brooch. There is another pin of similar shape ornamented with zoomorphic designs in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy,1 in Dublin.

Dr. Hans Ilildebrard, in his excellent South Kensington handbook of The Industrial Arts of Scandinavia (p. 21), remarks that "every work of human art, higher as well as lower, has its shape determined by two agents: the end which it is to serve, and the taste of the people and the time of which it is a fruit." In other words, there is a utilitarian as well as an ornamental side to almost every object fashioned by mar. to satisfy his wants. The form of an object must depend primarily upon the practical use to which it is intended to be put, and the decorative features generally follow afterwards in due course. The function of the decorative features, however, should be to add grace and beauty to the original form of the object, but not to attempt to disguise the unitarian purpose it fulfils.

No relics of antiquity are more deserving of study than personal ornaments, and of ail personal ornaments perhaps the brooch is the most important as affording an insight into the character of the people by whom it was worn. Their ingenuity can be measured by the perfection of the mechanism of the working » R.I.A. photo, A 165.

Pin-brooch from Clonmacnois, King's Co. Now in tfw possession c,( the Rev. Timothy lee, of Limerick Drawn bj R. Cochrane, p.s.a.

parts, their culture by the refinement of the ornament, and their skill as craftsmen by the finish of the workmanship. Much, again, is to be learnt of the habits of the people by investigating the different methods of wearing the brooch. Thus it is that almost every age and every country possesses its typical form of brooch.

Looked at from its practical side, a brooch is a contrivance for fastening together temporarily any two points on a garment. It is obviously a higher development of the pin. Going back to first pri"ciples, the pin may have been suggested by the natural spikes, or thorns, found in the vegetable world. It would not require much "ntelligence to see that a small knob added to the blunt end of the pin would facilitate its removal from the fabric when it was required to be withdrawn, and would also prevent the pin go:ng further than was desirable through the fabric. The problem which was solved by the 'nvention of the brooch, however, was one of much greater complexity, namely, how to secure the pin in position so as to prevent :t from slipping out of the fabric in the direction of the head. This might have been effected either by fixing a removable knob, or stop of some kind, on the pointed end after it had been inserted in the fabric, or by connecting the head with the point temporarily, so as to form a complete ring for the time being. In the brooch the latter alternative is chosen. The pin must necessarily be straight, so as to pierce the fabric with the least amount of resistance, and the temporary connection between the head and the point has to be approximately semicircular, the whole forming a ring shaped like a bow, the pin corresponding to tiie string and the body of the brooch to the bow.

In order to be able to remove the brooch from tne

silver penannular brooch from ireland; now in the british museum

SCALE | LINEAR

fabric at pleasure, some contrivance must be bit upon by which a gap, or break, can be made in the rl ig, and be closed up again whenever it is desired to do so. The opening is attained by placing a hinge where the head of a pin joins the body of the brooch, and the closing by having a groove-shaped catch at the opposite extremity. A spring is also required to prevent the pin coming unfastened accidentally from the catch. These different contrivances constitute the essential parts of a brooch, which, divested of its ornamental appendages, is represented by the ordinary "safety-pin " of the present day.

If the rigid buw-like connection between the head and point of the pin be doubled we get an annular brooch, and if the central portion of the ring be filled in we get the discoidal brooch. In these cases the riig or disc is placed parallel to the plane of- the fabric instead of at right angles to it.

The somewhat dry disquisition just inflicted upon the unsuspecting reader is necessary in order to place hirn: 1 a position to fully understand the mechanism of the typical Celtic brooch, the leading characteristics of which are that the ring has a break in its contir.uity (whence the name " penannular"), and that the length of the pin considerably exceeds the diameter of the ring. The object of the. break in the continuity of the ring is that ;t enables the spring-catch to be dispensed with, the method of fixing the brooch in the dress being as follows: First, the long pin is inserted in the fabric, at two points close together, in such a manner that the apex goes right through it and appears again above the surface ; the pin is then forced through the break, and the r'ng is given a turn through a right angle in the plane of the fabric, thus fixing the brooch by the friction produced by the drag of the weight of the garment on the pin.

We are now brought face to face with the question as to how the Celtic penannular brooch was worn. This can not only be conjecturally determined by an examination of the specimens to be found in museums, but fortunately can be settled beyond a shadow of a doubt in two ways, each of which confirms the other. First, there are at least two contemporary representations of persons actually wearing a penannular brooch (one on a cross at Monasterboice, Co. Louth, and the other on a cross at Kells, Co. Meath, in Ireland); and this ancient form of fibula has survived, and is in use at the present time in Algeria and elsewhere.

The example at ¡Monasterboice1 is on the bottom panel of the side of the shaft of the cross of Muiredach (or Murdoch), which was erected in a.d. 024. The scene represented on the panel has been conjectured bv the late Prof. J. O. Westwood, from its similarity to a miniature in the Book of Kells at Trinity College, Dublin, to be intended for Christ seized by the Jews. If this be so, the central figure is our Lord, and on each side is a soldier armed with a drawn sword. The sculpture is in good preservation, considering its great age, and the details of the costume, which are very elaborate, can be made out fairly well. Our Lord wears a sort of cloak with a penannular brooch fixed on His right shoulder. The split in the ring of the brooch faces downwards, and the pin is inclined upwards at an angle of about 30 degrees to the horizontal, the po;rit beir.g-outwards. Probably the heavy head of the p;n is placed downwards because its weight would always tend to bring it to this position, as the 1 Illustrated Artlnzol»gist for 1893, p. 164.

BISKRA WOMAN WE \RING A PAIR OF PENANNULAR PROOCHES. THE ENDS OF THE PINS POINTING UPWARDS

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