Amongst the objects most characteristic of the Hallstatt culture are

(1) Daggers, or short swords, with a pointed blade of ¡"-on and a bronze handle having two little projections at the top terminating in round knobs and resembling the antennai of an insect.

(2) Long double-edged swords with an iron blade made in imitation of the leaf-shaped swords of the Bronze Age, having the edges slightly curved outwards in the middle, but not having so sharp a point as the Bronze Age sword, and being murh longer. The hilts have a massive pommel encrusted with ivory and amber, and ornamented with gold-leaf.

(3) Pails, or situlai, of thin bronze plates ornamented with figure subjects executed in repousse work, and exhibiting a peculiar style of art which I)r. Arthur Evans thinks the Celts borrowed from the Veneti, the ancient Iilyrian inhabitants of the north of the Adriatic, who, in their turn, had come under Hellenic influence whilst the amber trade route between Greece and the Baltic passed through Hatria.

The- Hallstatt Swurd

Trade Among The CeltsLate Tene Fibule

BRONZE FIBULA OF LA TEÑE 'IYPE, IiRONZE FIBULA OF I.A TEÑE TYPE, I ROM THE CEMETERIES OF FROM THE CEMETERIES OF

THE MARNE THE MARNE

CRAVE OF A GAULISH WARRIOR AC SESTO CALENDE, ITALY

Hallstatt Fibulas

Dr. Arthur Evans1 divides the Hallstatt remains into an earlier and a later group, the former dating from about 750 to 550 B.C. During the later period, from 550 B.C., he thinks there was a tendency for the typically Gaulish or Late-Celtic culture to overlap that of the Early Iron Age. The Gallo-Italian tomb of a Celtic chieftain, found in 1867 at Sesto-Calende,2 at the south end of Lago Maggiore, illustrates the transition from the Hallstatt to the La Tone culture. Amongst the grave-goods were a situla with figure subjects in repousse metalwork and a short pointed iron sword having a handle furnished with antennae, like those from Hallstatt.

In addition, there were the remains of a chariot, horse - trappings, a bronze war-trumpet, helmet and greaves, and iron lancehead, such as we should expect to find buried with a Celtic warrior in the Iron Age in Gaul or Britain.

La Tene (which gives its name to the modified and later form of Hallstatt culture as it existed in Central Europe from about 400 B.C., when the name of the Gaul superseded that of the Celt, to the time of Cassar's conquest) is a military stronghold, or oppidum, situated at the N.E. end of the Lake of Neuchatel, commanding an important pass between the upper Rhone and the Rhine. The remains at La Tenc were first explored by Colonel Schwab in 1858, and subsequently by E. Vouga in 1880. The objects derived from this remarkable site are to be seen in the public museums at Bienne, Neuchatel, and Berne ; and in the private collections of Colonel Schwab,

1 Rhind Lectures on the "Origins of Celtic Art, Lecture II., as reported in the Scotsman for December 1.2th, 1S95.

Professor Desor, E. Vouga, Da^del Thorens, and Dr. Gross.1

According to Dr. Aithur Evans, the date of the culminating epoch of Gaulish civilisation, as represented by the annuities from La Tene, is probably the th rd century B.C. It was at this period that the earlier foreign elements derived from Hallsiatt, and even from countries further afield, became thoroughly assimilated, and the style of art called Late-Celtic began to take definite shape.

The typical arms found at La Tene are :—

(1) A long sword with a double-edged iron blade having a blunt point. The length and flexibility of the blade made it useless for thrusting in the way which was possible with the shorter and more rigid leaf-shaped sword of the Bronze Age, so the pointed end was abandoned.

(2) Lances with an iron point often of a peculiar curved form.2

(3) An oval shield of thin bronze plates ornamented with bosses.

(4.) A horned helmet of bronze.

The characteristic La Tene ornament is found chiefly on the sword-sheaths, the helmets, and the shields. The La Tone fibula; are derivatives of the "safety-pin," and usually have the tail-end bent backwards, as in the Marnian fibula; in France and the Late-Celtic fibula? in England.

The Gaulish culture in France corresponding with that of La Tene in Switzerland has been called

1 The remains are, f ully described in Dr. K. Keller's Lithe Dwellings } Dr. R. Munro's Lain Dwellings of Europe; E. Vouga's Les Heivltet ¿1 la Tine ; and Dr. Gross' /.a Tine un Oppidum Helvcte.

2 With ilrune-like undulating edges "so as to break the flesh all in pieces" (C. Elton's Origin* of English History, p. 116).

Massive PommelTene Jewelry

BRONZE ARMLET OF IHK LA TENE PERIOD rRO.M I.ONGIROD (VAUD)

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