Bronze Ar M Ilt Of The La Tfne Period From The Cemeteries Of He Marne

" Marnian " by the French archaeologists because the principal remains of this period have been found in the cemeteries of the Department of the Marne. A list of seventy-two such Marnian cemeteries (some of which contained as many as 450 graves) is given by A. Bertrand in his Archéologie Celtique et Gauloise, p. 358. The objects obtained from these cemeteries are fully illustrated in the Dictionnaire Archéologique de la Gaule, ard in Leon Morel's La Champagne

Art Celtique Gaule
Ornament on Pronze Sword-sheath from La Tene

souterraine (Album). The best collections are those in the Museum of Saint-Germain and the British Museum. M. Bertrand fixes the date of the Marnian cemeteries at from 350 to 200 r.c., the period between the time when bronze weapons ceased to be used, and the introduction of a national coinage into Gaul.

From the point of view of art, two of the most interesting burials discovered :n the Departement du Marne are those at Berru1 and Gorge-Meillet2 of

1 A. Rertrand's Archäologie Celtiqve et Gavhise, p. 356.

2 E. Fourdrigüier's Double Sipidtwt Gaulohe de la Gorge -Meiltet.

warriors interred with their chariots, horses, and complete military equipment, including two bronze helmets, which show the kind of decoration prevalent at the period, and afford a link between the Marrian style ir. Gaul and the Late-Celtic style in Britain. The

Gaulish Helmet of Bronze from Gorge-Meillet burials at Berru and Gorge-Meillet correspond very nearly with those at Arras, Danes' Graves, and elsewhere, in the portion of Yorkshire occupied by the Celtic tribe of the Paris:

The Marrian cemeteries belong to the second Iron Age of Central Europe after 400 B.C., but in the commune of Magny Lambert (Cote-d'or), near the source

Celtic Ornament 400Gorge Meillet Bronze Helmet
CASQ'JE 3E BERR'I »auke , dscouvcrt dm un Cmtlitrt GauLo'ii r-GAULISH HILMBT OF KRONER FROM BERRU (MARXE)

of the river Seine, tumuli ha\e been opened containing long iron swords and bronze situla; of distinctly Ilall-statt type.

I)r. Arthur Evans thinks that the older, or Hallstatt, culture of Central Europe was gradually modified and transformed into the La fene, Marnian, and Late-Celtic stages of culture, in consequence of the foreign influence exercised by the continual flow of Greek commerce into eastern Gaul from the sixth century B.C. onwards. Ample evidence of this commercial intercourse is afforded by the discovery of tripods, hydrias, oenochoes, and painted vases of Greek workmanship associated with Gaulish burials,1 as at Graelcwyt, near Berne in Switzerland, at Somme-Bionne (Marne), at Rodenbach in Bavaria, and at Courcelles-et-Montagr.e (Haute-Marne).

The great difficulty in understanding the evolution of Celtic art lies In the fact that although the Celts never seem to have invented any new ideas, they professed an extraordinary aptifude for picking up ideas from the different peoples with whom war or commerce brought them into contact. And once the Celt had borrowed an idea from his neighbour, he was able to give it such a strong Celtic tinge that it soon became something so different from what it was originally as to be almost unrecognisable.

Polybius gives the following picture of the Cisalpine Gauls :—

"These people camp out in villages without walls, and are absolutely ignorant of the thousand things that make life worth living. Knowing no other bed than straw, only eating flesh, they live in a half-wild state. Strangers to

1 A. Bertrand s ArchMogie Celtique et Gaufoise. pp. 328 to 347; see also L. Liiidensehmit's Die Alttrtkumer u merer heidnkchen Vorzeit, Mainz, 1858, etc.

everything which is not connected with war or agricultural labour, they possess neither art nor science oi' any description."

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