Other Side Newgrange Entrance Stone

Fig-. 17.

Fig. 17.—(a) Bar Lattice-work-Surfacc Pattern; the same as Fig. 15 (a), but with diagonal bars instead of lines. (b) The same as (a), but shaded. Fig. 18.—(a) Surface Pattern, produced by repeating Fig. 11 (r). (Sj The same as («), but shaded.

The patterns derived from the saltire are shown on Fig. 19.

X

X

X

X

X

Y

Y

W

m

(a) Saltire Border Pattern. (b, c, d) Saltire Border Pattern, shaded in different ways. (e) The same as (a), but with bars instead of lines.

The patterns derived from the hexagon are shown on Figs. 20 and 21.

Hallristninger Symbols
Fig. 20. Fig. 21.

{a) Hexagon Border Pattern, derived from the Lozenge Border,

Fig. 2 (6), by leaving out every other X (0) The same as (c), but with the Triangles shaded.

(c) The same as (a), but with the Hexagons shaded.

(d) Surface Pattern, composed of Hexagons anil Triangles; produced by repeating (c), so that the Hexagons in one horizontal row adjoin the Triangles in the next.

(a) Hexagon Surface Pattern, probably derived from Fig. 11 (i), by drawing straight lines between the points of each of the Chevrons.

(b) The same as (a), but with bars instead of lines, and hav ing the Hexagons shaded.

The variations in the practical application of the chevron patterns, which have been described above,

to the decoration of the sepulchral pottery of the Bronze Age, are produced in the following ways :—

(1) By placing the chevrons {a) horizontally, or (b} verti cally.

(2) By making the chevrons of different sizes.

(3) By altering the angle of the chevrons, i.e. making the points more acute or more obtuse.

(4) By shading some parts of the pattern whilst other parts are left plain.

(5) By using different methods of shading, such as plain hatching, cross-hatching, dotting, etc.

(6) By combining the chevrons with horizontal and vertical lines.

(7) By arranging the patterns in horizontal bands of different widths.

In a few cases1 hexagonal figures occur in the decoration of the urns, but the patterns do not belong to the true hexagonal system of ornament. The hexagons were arrived at by leaving a space between the triangles of the chevrons, as on a drinking-cup found at Rhos-heirio,2 Anglesey.

The decoration of the urns is generally confined to the exterior, the only exceptions being the interiors of the 'ips of some of the examples and the crosses in relief found on the bottoms inside of cinerary urns from Wilts, Dorset, and Sussex.

The incense-cups have occasionally ornament on the bottoms of them which, like the crosses iust mentioned, may have a symbolical significance.

Some of the urns from Ireland. Scotland, and the Isle of Man, are very beautifully decorated with sunk triangles and ovals.

1 LI. Jewitt's Grave Mounds and their Contents, p. 10S. Folkton, Yorkshire.

2 Archcenlogia Cambrenjis, 3rd ser., vol. xiv., p. 271; British Barroivs, p. 70.

The different types of urns are not all equally highly ornamented. The large ilower-pot-shaped cinerary urns have least decoration, being sometimes quite plain, but in the majority of cases having a broad band of ornament round the top. The drinking-cups are more elaborately decorated than any other class of sepulchral pottery, although the food-vessels are also nearly as ornate.

The artistic quality of the decoration varies in different parts of Great Britain. Some of the most beautiful examples come from localities where there was a great mixture of aboriginal blood with that of the Celtic, invaders, ana ii is not unlikely that the infusion of new blood may have had something to do with the excellence of the art.

The chevron, although it was more highly developed as a decorative art-motive in the Bronze Age than at any other period, was not unknown to the Neolithic inhabitants of Great Britain, and it is more than probable that the Goidelic Celts got the idea from them. Several shallow vessels with a band of chevron ornament round the rim were found in the chambered cairn at Unstan,1 Orkney, which is of the later Stone Age. This particular chevron pattern occurs frequently in the Bronze Age. Each of the triangles formed by the chevron is tailed in with hatched lines running diagonally, but alternately in directions at right angles to each other (Fig. 4, d', p. 30). The. pattern had no doubt a structural origin, and was suggested by lashing of the description used for the hafting of stone axes, or by some similar bandaging of cords.2

1 Dr. J. Anderson's Scotland in Pagan Times: Rrorse and Stone Ages, p. 294.

A similar chevron pattern is to be seen on a bowl from the Dolmen du Port-Blanc, Saint Pierre, Quiberon, Morbiban, Brittany.1 Possibly this may be the survival of a strengthening band of basketwork rourd the vessel.

Frunze Spear-heads ornamented with rows of dots In the Museum of tht Royal Irish Academy, Dublin

The decoration of the bronze implements, gold iunulaD, and jet necklaces of the Bronze Age corresponds very nearly with that of the sepulchral pottery. All the

1 Paul du Chatellier's La Poterie aux Epoques préhistorique et Gauloise, pi. 12, fig. 12.

designs are founded upon the chevron. On the objects of metal the patterns are produced ov the hammer, punch, and graver, and on the flat jet beads of the necklaces by a borer.

designs are founded upon the chevron. On the objects of metal the patterns are produced ov the hammer, punch, and graver, and on the flat jet beads of the necklaces by a borer.

Tene Culture Jet Beads

The bronze implements most frequently decorated are celts and razors, and more rarely dagger-blades and spear-heads. A line bronze spear head, wilh two gold studs, found in the Thames at Taplow in 1903, is ornamented with a herringbone design.1

1 Now in the Brit. Mus. See Pr<~c. of Sue. of Antiq., 2nd ser., voi. xix., pp. 2S7-9; see also vol. xxiii., p. 16S.

Of the three classes of bronze celts, namely,1 (i) F'lat celts, (2) Winged and flanged celts, (3) Socketed celts, it is only the first two that are decorated with chevron patterns in the same way as the sepulchral pottery. The socketed celts, which are later than the others, are ornamented with elementary ribs,2 or with concentric, circles resembl:ng those on certain Gaulish terra-cotta figures.3

On some of the bronze spear-heads in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy the ornament consists of lines of small dots. The dotted patterns in the Irish MSS. may possibly be traced to this source.

The greatest number of gold lunula;, most of which exhibit the characteristic chevron-motive decoration of the Bronze Age, have been found in Ireland. I)r. W. Frazer has compiled a list of known examples, which will be found in the Journal of the Royal Society of A ntiquaries of Ireland.1 T he numbers are as follows :—

Museum of the Royal Irish Academy . 32

Edinburgh Museum . . 4

Belfast Museum . . 1

Private Collections . . 3

Present owners unknown . q

The decoration consists of very fine lines executed with chisel-edged punches,6 and t is concentrated on the edges and the two horns of the crescent, the broad

1 Early Man in Britain, p. 350 ; Brit. Mus. Bronze Age Guide, p, 40.

2 Vict. Co. Hist. Lane., vol. i., p. 233; Berks., vol. 1., p. 182.

3 Archceologia Cambrensis, ser. 3, vol. xiv., p. 308. Sorketed celts four.d al Kingston, Surrey, :\re ornamented with circles, having central pellets dependent from vertical ribs or lines. Vict. Co. Hist. Surrey, vol.

5 Sir W. Wilde's Catal. of Antiquaries of Gold in Mus. R I. A., p. 10.

part of the crescent in the middle being quite plain, as will be seen in the specimen illustrated on page 40 from Killarney, now in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin.

The lunula; were probably worn as head-dresses or else round tne neck, and the contrast between the large expanse of burnished gold and the delicately engraved patterns must have been very effective when seen flashing in the bright sunlight.

Some of the finest examples of jet necklaces have been found with Bronze Age burials in Scotland, as at Balcalk, Forfarshire; Tayfield, Fife; Torrish, Suther-landshire ;1 Assynt, Sutherlandshire ;2 and Melfort, Argyllshire. They have also been found occasionally in England, as at Middlcton Moor,8 Derbyshire.

The beads of which the necklaces are composed are of three different shapes, ovoid, flat triangular plates, and four-sided flat piates. The flat beads are decorated with chevrons, triangles, and lozenges produced by rows of dots. Here again we have an distance of a kind of decoration which survived in Christian times.

The last class of remains exhibiting Bronze Age decoration are the sculptured rocks anu stones. Some of the carvings are found on natural rock surfaces and boulders; others or. such megalithic monuments as stone circles, dolmens, and chambered cairns; whilst numerous examples are on the slabs forming the covers or sides of sepulchral cists.

Although the megalithic structures called by the late

Mr. James Ferguson "rude stone monuments" un*

1 Dr. J. Anderson's Scotland in Pagan Times: Bronze and Stone Ages,

2 Daniel Wilson's Prehistoric Annals cf Scotland.

s K.iteman's Ten Years' Diggings, p. 25.

doubtedly belong' as a class to the Neolithic period, yet some of them exhibit decorative forms which are characteristic of the Bronze Age. This suggests the interesting speculation whether the ornamental patterns used by the Celts in the Bronze Age may not have been to a large extent borrowed from the Neolithic aborigines, and also whether the absorption of the Iberian peoples by the conquering Goidels may not have had a stimulating effect on decorative art.

However this may be, it is a curious fact that the best specimens of Bronze Age ornament sculptured on stone exist in the Co. Meath, in Ireland, where such an admixture of race would be most likely to occur, and the type of monument on which the carvings are found belongs to the Neolithic period. In Ireland, therefore, either the erection of dolmens, chambered cairns, and other similar structures must have survived during the Bronze Age, or else the characteristic patterns of the Bronze Age must have been derived from a Neolithic source.

The wonderful series of chambered cairns at New-grange, near Drogheda, and at Sliabh na Calliaghe, near Oldcastle, both in the Co. Meath, have been well known to archaeologists for many years, but it is only quite recently that their decorative sculpture has been studied scientifically by Mr. George Coffey, m.r.i.a., the. Curator of the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin. The follow ing account has been compiled chiefly from Mr. Coffey's admirable monographs on the subject, published in the Transactions oft he Royal Irish Academy.1

The. great prehistoric cemetery, which has been identified with the Brugli na Bomne mentioned in the 1 Vol. XXX., p. i.

Leabhar-na-h-Uidhri and in the Book of Ballvmote, is situated five miles west of Drogheda, extending thence about three miles along the northern bank of the Boyne cowards Slane. Amongst the most important of the sepulchral remains are the three great tumuli of Dowth, Newgrange, and Knowth, taking them in order from east to west. Two of the tumuli certainly contain chambers, access to which is gamed by a passage leading from the exterior, and the third, judging from analogy, probably is also chambered. The Boyne tumuli are recorded in the Annals of Ulster to have been plundered by the Danes in a.d. 862. The chamber of the Dowth tumulus has been open since 1847 ; that of Newgrange since 1699, when it was first entered in modern times bv Edward Lhuyd, the keeper of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford; and that of Knowth still remains to be explored.

The sculptures at Newgrange are of such exceptional interest that it is desirable to give a brief description of the structure upon which they are found. The tumulus stands less than a quarter of a mile north-east of New-grange House, the Dowth tumulus being i\ to the north-east, and the Knowth tumuius three-quarters of a mile to the north-west. The Newgrange tumulus is surrounded by a circle of stones originally consisting of thirty-five upright monoliths, twelve of which may still be traced. Four of the standing stones near the entrance are from 6 to 7 feet in height, but the remainder are of smaller size. Between the circle and the brse of the mound is a ditch and a rampart of loose stones. The tumulus is also of loose stones, surrounded at the base by a continuous curb of great slabs of stone from 8 to 10 feet long, laid on edge, above which is a retaining wall of dry rubble 5 or 6 feet high. The tumulus is

Sagrada Familia Pirograbado

approximately circular in p!an, 280 feet in diameter, and 44 feet high. The area occupied by the mound alone is at least an acre. The entrance to the passage leading to the chamber is on the S.E. side of the mound, and the passage runs in a N.W. direction. The chamber is not in the centre of the mound, but to the S.K. side of the centre. The plan of the passage and chamber is irregularly cruciform, the dimensions being as follows :—

Feet.

Indies.

Length of passage . ...

62

O

Length from end of passage to back of

N.W. recess . ...

18

O

Average width of passage

3

O

Width of chamber from back of N.K.

recess to back of S.W. recess .

21

O

Height of passage varies from 4 ft. 9 in. to

7

IO

Height of chamber

»3

6

Depth of N.E. recess

8

8

„ N.W. „ ...

1

6

„ S.W. „ ...

3

4

The side walls of the passage and chamber are constructed of tail upright stones, having the interstices filled in with rubble work. The passage is roofed over with single lintel stones. The roof of the chamber is in the form of an irregular six-sided truncated pyramid composed of stones corbelled out until they meet sufficiently near together at the top to be covered by a single slab. The floor was originally paved with carefully selected, water-rounded pebbles. These with equal originality and care have been removed by the Irish Board of Works, and placed in the bottom of the pi* dug in front of the carved stone at the entrance.

There are or, the floor four rudely made shallow stone

basins, one in each of the three recesses, and the fourth in the centre of the chamber. The one in the middle of the chamber was taken from the position it formerly occupied on the top of the basin in the N.K. recess (where it was seen by Edward Lhuyd in 1699), and placed where it now is by the over-ofticious zeal of the Irish Board of Works. The large stones of the chamber are of the lower si'.urian grit of the district.

The following are the stones :—

On exterior of Mound at Base.

No. 1. — Above entrance of passage leading to chamber.

No. 3.—Nearly in aline with axis ofpassage prolonged to cut circumference of mourd on N.W. side.

N.Ii. side—twenty-one uprights-NOS. 3, 12, 18, and 21 sculptured, counting from entrance inwards.

S.W. side—twenty uprights—Nos. 10, n, 17, and 20 sculptured, counting from entrance inwards.

1 There is a good photograph of this stone and of the entrance to the. great cairn in Charles Squire's Ethnofrgy of the British Islands, p. 136 (2nd ed., 1910).

In Chamber.

Seventeen uprights—Nos. 2, 3, 4, 10, and 16 sculptured, commencing at end of passage S. W. side, and counting round from right to left. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 are in S.W. recess, where there is also a horizontal stone above No. 3 sculptured. No. 10 forms the N.K. jamb of the N.W, recess. No. 16 forms the. S.E. jamb of the N.E. recess, which has also a sculptured roofing-stone. The horizontal lintel -stone over the open'ng oi the passage into the chamber is sculptured.

Analysing the sculptured decoration of this tumulus, we find it to consist partly of chevron patterns and chevron derivatives (such as combinations of the triangle and lozenge), and partly of spi-al ornament, together wilh a few designs formed of circles grouped round a lozenge, and some cups and rings. The chevron patterns have already been noticed on sepulchral urns, bronze implements, etc., of Great Britain, and concentric circles on socketed bronze celts, but spiral ornament is conspicuous by its absence on any of these classes of objects. Spirals are only known to occur on sculptured stones and rock-surfaces in Great Bntain, and on a few of the remarkable stone balls with nobs found :n Scotland, of which there are two specimens in the Brif'sh Museum (Case 51). The following examples have been recorded

Spiral Orrament at New-grange, Co Meath. Scale \ linear
Newgrange Tumulus

Slab with Spiral Ornament outside entrance to passage of Tumulus at Newgrange, Co. Meath

Frjm a drawing by George Coffey, M.k.l.A.

ENGLAND

Cumberland.

Maughanby (Stone circle surrounding cist under tumulus). Old Parks, Kirkoswald (Upright slab under tumulus). Lancashire. Calderstones, near Liverpool (Stone Circle). Northumberland. Morwick (Rock surface).

Lilburn Hill Farm (Slabs of stone found in grave).

WALES

Merionethshire. Llunbe.dr (Slab of stone found near hut-circles, now in Llanbedr churchyard).

SCOTLAND

Orkney. Eday (Stone in Pict's House, now in the Edinburgh Museum). Firfh (Slab of stone, now in the Edinburgh Museum). Elginshire. Strvpes (Standingstone).

Elgin (Stone ball). Aberkeenshirf. Towie (Stor.e ball, now in the Edinburgh Museum).

Lumphanan (Stone bal', now in collection of Hugh W. Young, Esq., f.s.a., Scot.). Argyllshire. Achnabreac (Sculptured rock-surface). Ayrshire. Coilsfield (Cist-cover).

Blackshaw (Rock-surface). Peeblesshire. La Mancha (Slab of stone, nov. :n the Edinburgh Museum). Wigtonshire. Camerol Muir, Kirkdale (Standing stone). Dumfriesshire. Hollows Tower, Eskdale (Door-sill).

IRELAND

Co. Meath. Newgrange (Chambered Cairn). Dowth (Chambered Cairn). Loughcrew (Chambered Cairn). King's Mountain (Chambered Ca;rn).

Co. Louth. Killing Hill, Dundalk (Sepulchral Chamber). Co. Tyrone. Knockmany (Chambered Cairn). Co. Fermanagh. Castle Arc.hdall (Sepulchral Chamber). Co. Donegal. Glencolumbkille (Sepulchral Chamber).

Spiral ornament is as conspicuously absent on the implements and objects of the Bronze Age in Gaul as in Britain. It is, then, to Scandinavia that we must look for the origin of the Bronze Age spirals found in this country.

In the museums at Copenhagen, Stockholm, and Christiania, may be seen splendid specimens of bronze axes, sword-hilts, and personal ornaments exhibiting spiral decoration in the greatest perfection. These are fully illustrated in A. P. Madsens' monograph on the Bronze Age, in the works of O. Montelius and j. II. A. Worsaae, and in the Transactions of the various archaeological societies :n Sweden and _ .

0 Sp'ral Ornament

Denmark. (j11 Bronze Axe-

The spirals with which the objects of the head from Bronze Age 'n Scandinavia are decorated are generally arranged with their centres at equal distances apart, and connected together by S- or C-shaped curves, the former being the most common.

When spirals are arranged in a single row, the problem of how to connect the whole together so as to form a continuous running pattern does not present much difficulty, but if it is required to cover a large surface with spirals in groups of three or of four, all properly connected, the solution is not so easy as it appears at first sight. Both the metal-workers who made the Scandinavian bronze implements, and the artist who designed the sculptured decoration of the Newgrange tumulus, seem to have been unable to master the method of arranging the S- and C-shaped connections of the spirals in proper order,1 so as to be capable of extension in every direction over a surface of any required size. The difficulty was got over by a most ingenious artifice, as Mr. George Coffey was

Celtic Axe Tene
Bronze Axe-head with Spiral Ornament frum Sweden

the first to point out in his monograph on "Newgrange, I)owth, and Knowth"' in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy (vol. xxx., p. 25). When the spirals

1 That is to say, the way of placing- the centres of the spirals in relation to each other, and of determining- how mAny S- or C-shaped curves should run to each centre.

are not arranged and connected together in accordance with the requirements of geometry, some of the bands which compose the ornament have loose ends, i.e. run to nowhere. The question was how to dispose of the loose ends so as to deceive the eye and give the appearance of a continuous pattern. It was effected very simply by carrying the loose ends right round one or more of the other spirals so as to enclose them. Good instances of this occur on the sculptured slabs at Newgrange (p. 48), and on the carved stone ball from Towis, Aberdeenshire, now in the Edinburgh Museum of Antiquities.

Mr. G. Coffey's theory, in which we feel inclined to agree, is that the spiral motive came to Ireland from Scandinavia across Scotland and the north of England. Both the geographical distribution of spirals sculptured on stone in Great Britain, and the fact that the same imperfect method of connecting the spirals together for all-over surface treatment is found in Ireland, Scotland, and Scandinavia certainly lend support to this view.

It is now generally admitted by archaeologists that the spiral decoration of the Bronze Age in Scandinavia is of Mycena'an origin ; and the clearest possible proof is furnished by an associated spiral and lotus motive design upon a bronze celt from Aarhoj,1 near Aalborg, Jutland, which finds an exact parallel in the ornament upon a gold pectoral from Mycenae.2

The Mycenaean spiral decoration has furthermore been clearly proved by Mr. Goodyear in his Grammar of the Lotus to have been borrowed from ancient Egypt ; the best instance of the transference of a spiral and lotus mot;ve pattern from Egypt to the

1 Mémoires de la Société Royale des Antiquaires du Nord, 1887, p. 259.

2 l'errcit and Chipiez'» Art in Primitive Greece, vol. i., p. 323.

.¿Egean being the sculptured ceiling of the beehive tomb at Orchomenos. In Egypt, the spiral is found by itself forming a continuous running border on the scarabs of Usertesen I.1 (Twelfth Dynasty, b.c. 27582714), and combined with the lotus on a scarab at Turin2 of the same period. The best examples of the use of the spiral as continuous surface ornament are to be seen on the ceilings of Egyptian tombs of the Eighteenth Dynasty (b.c. i633-i5oo>.3

The spiral motive thus was most flourishing in Egypt from the Twelfth Dynasty to the Eighteenth, say from b.c. 2758 —1700.1 After that it found its way to the xEgean, perhaps as early as 1400 b.c.,5 and thence to Hungary, Scandinavia, and Great Britain.

The chambered tumuli at Dowth, on the Boyne, and Loughcrew, near Oldcastle, Co. Meath, resemble the Newgrange tumulus in plan and construction, but the sculptures upon the stones of the chambers and passages are not so obviously of Bronze Age type as those at Newgrange. The designs seem to be more symbolical than ornamental, and from the frequent occurrence of star- and wheel-shaped designs may have to do with sun-worship. The Loughcrew tumuli and their sculptures have been very fully described by Mr. E. A. Conwell, in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy (vol. ix., p. 355 ; and 2nd ser., vol. ii., p. 72); by Mr. George Coffey, in the Transactions of the same society (vol. xxxi., p. 23); and by Dr. W. Frazer, in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (vol. xxvi., p. 294).

1 Flinders Fetrie, Egyptian Dccorative Art, p. 21.

3 Prisif d'Avennts., Hittoire de VArt Egyptien aprh les Monvments.

4 Fiinders Fetrie, Decorative Art in Egypt, p. 28.

6 Journal of Helltnic Studies, vol. xii., p. 203.

A certain proportion of the sepulchral cists of the Bronze Age in Great Britain exhibit symbolical or decorative designs. The following is a list of the examples which have been recorded :—

Ross-shire. Bakerhill.

Argyllshire. Kilmartin.

Carnban.

Clackmannan. Tillycoultry.

Linlithgowshire. Caerlowrie.

Craigie Wood.

Lanarkshire. Camwath.

Ayrshire. Coilsfield.

Cumberland. Aspatria.

Redlands, near Penrith.

Northumberland. Ford West Field.

Yorkshire. Bernaldbj Moor.

Co. Tyrone. Seskin.

The sculpture is usually on the cover-stone of the cist, but in the case of the. examples at Kilmartin and at Carnban it is on the vertical end slabs.

The sculptured designs consist of cups and rings, concentric circles, lozenges, triangles, axe-heads, curved meandering lines, and a few patterns composed of straight lines. The earv ings show the same pick-marks that were observed at Newgrange.

The axe-heads on the end slab of the cist at Kilmartin1 are of the wedge shape common ia the early Bronze Age. Like the stone axes and axe-heads sculptured on the dolmens of Brittany, they probably have a symbolical meaning connected with the worship of some axe-bearing deity such as Zeus.

The designs, composed of triangles alternately covered with dots and left plain, which occur on the cist-cover from Carnwath,- we have already seen sculptured at Newgrange and engraved on bronze axes and jet necklaces. The grouped circles on the cist-cover from Craigie Wood- may also be compared with those on the slabs in the Newgrange tumulus, on the stone ball from Towie in the Edinburgh Museum, and on the chalk drums from Folkton in the British Museum.

In three cases (viz. at Coilsfield,5 Carnwath. and Ti'lycoultry)4 elaborately ornamented urns of the food-vessel type have been found in the sculptured cists, thus clearly proving the period to which the cists belong.

Sometimes slabs of stone sculptured with cup-marks, cups ard rings, and spirals, have been found associated with Bronze Age burials, although not forming parts of a cist. One of the most remarkable discoveries of this kind was made at Old Parks,5 near Kirk Oswald, Cumberland. In 1894 a barrow composed of loose stones, 80 feet in diameter and 4 feet high, was opened by the late Chancellor R. S. Ferguson, f.s.a., and when the mound was removed a row of live slabs fixed upright in the ground was disclosed. The stones were in a line pointing north and south, cutling the site of the mound into two halves, and three of them are sculptured with spirals. As many as thirty-two deposits of burnt 'nones were found in holes scooped out of the natural surface of the ground, together with two orna

6 Cttmb. and ¡Vest. Ant. Soc. Trans., vol. xiii., p. 389.

mented urns of ncense-cup form, fragments of several other urns, and a necklace of cannel-coal beads.

A slab of stone sculptured with spirals ami concentric circles was found in 1883 on Lilburn Hill1 Farm near Wooler, Northumberland, associated with seven deposits of burnt bones buried n small circular pits.

Stones sculptured with cups, or cups and rings, have been found either as cover-stones of urns or associated with burials in round barrows at the following places:—

Northumberland. Ingoe.

Black Hedon.

Kirk Whelping^on.

Cumberland. Maughanby.

Yorkshire. Kilburn.

Ayton Moor.

Claughton Moor.

Wykeham Moor.

Derbyshire. Elkstone.

Sheen.

Staffordshire. Stanton.

Dorsetshire. Came Down.

Sutherlandsiiire. Dornoch Links.

Aberdeenshire. Greenloan, Cabrach.

A link between the art of the Bronze Age in Britain and the art of Mycenae is afforded by a rock-sculpture at Ilkley,"-' Yorkshire, which takes the form of a curved swastika. It belongs to a peculiar class of patterns composed of wind; ig bands and small bosses or dots, of which there are numerous examples in the Scandinavian3 and Mycenaean4 metal-work. Perhaps some of

"'■Jour. Brit. Archœol. Assoc., vol. xxxv., p. 18.

3 A. P. Madsen's Antiquités préhistoriques du Danemark.

4 Schhemun's Mycenœ, pp. 166, 167,169, 264, and 265.

the Late-Celtic designs, in which the arrangement of the long sweeping S- and C-shaped curves is governed hv the position of circular bosses they connect, may be descended from the winding-band patterns of the Mycena;an period. For instance, the designs on the enamelled handles of the bowl found at Barlaston,

Swastika Spiral
Winding Band (curved Swastika), sculptured in rock near Ilkley, Yorkshire Scalo J linear

Staffordshire, and on the Ilkley rock-sculpture have obvious points in common, both being founded on the curved swastika.

There are in different parts of Great Britain a great number 01" rocks and boulders sculptured with cups, generally surrounded by concentric rings, and often having a radial groove leading from the cup outwards.

Towie Stone Ball

SPIRAL ORNAMENT ON STONE BALL FROM TOVt'IF., ABERDEENSHIRE; NOW IN THE EDINBURGH MUSEUM

SCALE - LINEAR

Antique Sword Hilt Drawings

bronze sword-hilt with winding-band pattl un from denmark bronze sword-hut with spiral ornament from dfnmakk

Swastika Cups

The best-known instances are at Ilkley in Yorkshire, Wooler in Northumberland, the district on the east side of Kirkcudbright Bay between Kirkcudbright and the Solway Firth, and Lochgilphead and Kilmartin in

Scale linear

Argyllshire. In a few cases the cup-and-ring sculptures are associated with the wheel-symbol, as at Mevagh, Co. Donegal, and at Cochno, Dumbartonshire. Such sculptures are more likely to be symbolical than decorative, but it would take us too far afield to discuss their meai ing here. Those who wish to pursue the subject further may with advantage consult Sir James Simpson's valuable paper on "Ancient Sculp-turings of Cups and Concentric Rings," forming the Appendix to vol. vl. of the Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot.

The sculptured rock-surfaces of Great Britain ;n some respects resemble the " Hallristninger " on the west coast of Sweden. The cup and ring, the wheel-symbol, and the curved swastika are common to both, but the Swedish sculptures are much more elaborate and include figure-subjects, ships, animals, etc. The age. of some of the sculptures is indicated by the characteristic shape of the axes (evidently of bronze) held by the figures, and by the fact that the same set of symbols which occur on the rocks are also to be seen on the engraved knives of the Bronze Age found in Scandinavia. The Swedish rock-scu'pfures are fully described and illustrated in L. Baltzer's Hall ris tn inga r fran Bohus/an, A. Holmberg's Skandinaviens H'altrist-ninger, and the Mémoires of the International Congress of Prehistoric. Archaeology at Stockholm.

Summing up the results of our investigations, we find that the peculiarities in the Pagan Celtic art of the Bronze Age which were transmitted to the Pagan and Christian styles of the Early Iron Age are as follows :—

(1) The use of the closely coiled spiral.

(3) The use of diagonal lines in preference to those run ning horizontally or vertically.

(4) The use of designs founded on the curved swastika.

Of all these the spiral decorative motive is by far the most important, as we shall see i.i a subsequent chapter.

CHAPTER III

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