Of The Christian Period

one of most stable equilibrium, but it may also have been to avoid injury from the point of the long p:n.

The second example is on the bottom panel of the side of the broken cross-shaft in Kells1 churchyard. The exact date of this monument is unknown, but it is probably of the ninth or tenth century. The subject on the panel is the Baptism of Christ, with the sources of the two imaginary rivers, Jor and Dan, which, when united, were supposed to contribute their waters to the Jordan, indicated conventionally in a most remarkable manner. John the Baptist pours the water over the head of Christ with a sort of ladle. Above is the Holy Dove, and on the left are two figures wearing pen-annular brooches exactly in the same manner as on the Monasterboice cross, with the pin pointing upwards. In the case of the figure furthest to the left, the end of the long pin is inserted a second time into the fabric of the dress, beyond the ring.

The method of wearing the penannular brooch at the present day in Algeria is clearly indicated on the reproduction of a photograph2 here given. The only d fference in the way of wearing the brooch in Algeria and i:i ancient Ireland is, that in the former case they are worn in pairs instead of singly, and there is a connecting chain with a smail pendant scent-box hung from the middle. The size of the box is exaggerated out of all proportion by being placed nearer the camera than the rest of the figure.

In Great Britain the penannular brooches appear to have been worn singly, as they are never found in

1 Illustrated Arthanlogist for 1893, p. 165.

2 Obtained from Albert JIauteeceur, 2, lioulevard des Capucines, Paris.

y pairs; thus offering a contrast to the Scandinavian howl-shaped brooches, which are always found in pairs, and were connected by a chain, as in the case of the Algerian brooches.

It would be interesting to know how the penannular form of brooch was first introduced into this country, for its seems hardly conceivable ttiat it could have been invented here, or else it would not be found in Algeria, which never had any connection with Great Britain, it being extremely unlikely that so peculiar a type of brooch was evolved independently in the two countries.

The most probable suggestion is that the Algerians and the ancient Irish got it from a common source, namely, the East, and that its :ntroduction into our own islands dates from the time when the traffic in silver bullion from the East commenced. The existence of a trade route w hich was made use of by the dealers in silver bullion is made clear by the number of finds of Mahomedan silver coins associated with ingots, rings, and ornaments of silver, made both in Scandinavia and in Great Britain. Dr. Hans Hildebrand, in his Industrial Arts of Scandinavia (p. 81), informs us that "considerable stores of such coins, most of them of the Sarranid dv nasty, have been found in Sweden. It is satisfactorily proved by Russian finds, that these coins were brought from states near the Caspian Sea, through Russia to the shores of the Baltic Sea, and thence to the commerce established by the inhabitants of Gotland over to that island. From Gotland, and probably also by direct intercourse with Russia, the Mahomedan coins were spread over Scandinavia, being of course more common in the eastern provinces of Sweden than n the western and m Norway." No


less than 20,000 Mahomedan silver coins have already been discovered in Sweden, mostly dating between A.D. 880 and 955, the latest belonging to the year A.D. IOIO.

Penannular brooches have been found ,n association with Mahomedan coins of the ninth and tenth centuries, at Skaill. in Orkney; at Storr, in Skye ; and at Cuerdale, near Preston, in Lancashire.

Although the general form of the penannular brooch is probably of Eastern origin, the decorative features vary according to the race of people who adopted it. Thus the examples from Algeria have Mahomedan ornament; those from Gotland, Scandinavian patterns; whilst those from Ireland and Scotland are thoroughly Celtic in design. With the decoration of the foreign specimens we are not now concerned, but a few words with regard to the various types found in Great Britain will form a fitting conclusion to this article.

The finest collections of penannular brooches are to be seen in the British Museum, the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, in Edinburgh, and in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin. A few good specimens are in private hands, and there is a splendid one from Orton Scar,1 in Westmoreland, in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries at Burlington House.

The portions of the brooch, the forms of which are altered so as to adapt them better to the reception of ornament, are the head of the pin and the two terminations of the ring, where the break occurs. The two chief ways of altering the shapes of these parts are (i) by making them spherical, and (2) by expanding :nto a wide flat surface ; the object in both cases being

1 Riliquary for 1903, p. 203.

to increase the area available for decoratiun. Sometimes, also, the ring and the long end of the pin are flattened and widened for a similar purpose.

As an example of a penanr.ular brooch with bulbous, terminations to the ring and head of the pin, we have one from Co. Kildare in Ireland (R.i.A. photo, B 172). The knobs are covered with a prickly ornament produced by incised 1'nes drawn diagonally n two directions, crossing each other, giving the whole the appearance of the head of a thistle. Several brooches of this kind have been obtained from different localities in Ireland, and there was one along with the three brooches of the type with flattened and expanded ends found with the Ardagh Chalice—a hoard of objects of purely Irish types—but their ornamentation appears to be more Scandinavian than Celtic. One of the best specimens from Skaill, n Orkney, now in the Edinburgh Museum, has a pin 1 foot 3 inches long, and the bulbous ends covered with zoomorphic designs similar to those on the Manx crosses, and on an iron axe-head inlaid with silver from the MaminePi How,1 Denmark.

We next come to brooches with discoidal terminations, of a date not later than the beginning of the ninth century, as the simplest example of which may be taken one from Croy, in Inverness-shire (Scotland in Early Christian Times, 2nd ser., p. 23). Another, found near Perth {ibid., p. 21), has three raised heads on each disc; whilst one from Rogart, in Sutherland-shire (ibid., p. 7), has four raised heads outside the circumference of the disc, so that the terminations are altered into the shape of a quartrefoil.

Lastly, we have brooches with flat expanded ends to

1 Dr. J. Anderson's Scotland in Pagan Times : Imn Age, p. 97.

Rogart Scotland Map
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