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LATE-CELTIC BRONZE FIBULA, LOCALITY UNKNOWN ; NOW IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM

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S-SHAf'l I) FIBULA OF 1 N \MI LLF.n BRONZE, I ROM NORTON E.RIDING OF YORKS11IRI- ; NOW IN THE HRITInH Nil '¿EUM SCAl.F - UNlIÄ* 3

the body or framework, connecting the head with the tail ; and (4) the pin, moving on a hinge or spring at one end and with the pointed end fitting into the catch. In all fibula; derived from the safety-pin the pin is straight and the bodj bent into a more or less arched shape, like a bow. An infinite variety of forms were produced (1) bv increasing the number of coils in the spring and their size ; (2) by expanding the tail end into a thin triangular plate; and (3) by increasing the thickness of the body, or by making a coil in the middle of its length to act as a secondary spr ng. Much the most important modifications, however, in the safety-pin brooches were those which gradually led up to the harp-shaped, T-shaped, and cruciform fibula? of the Romano-British period. Dr. Arthur J. Evans, in his paper in the Archceologia (vol. lv., p. 179; on "Two Fibula1 of Celtic Fabric from ^Esica," has traced the evolution of the harp-shaped fibula from the bow-s'naped fibula in a most interesting way. The different stages in the process appear to have been as follows:—

(1) The tail end of the fibula was extended and bent backwards so as to make an S-shaped curve with the bow; (2) the retroflected end of the tail was fixed to the middle of the convex side of the bow by means of a small collar, made i:. a separate piece; (3) the whole of the Dack was formed out of one piece of metal, w ith the collar surviving as a mere ornament; and (4) the triangular opening at the tail, bounded by the retro-fiected end, part of the bow, and the catch for the point of the pin. was filled in solid with a thin plate. It will be noticed that during this process of evolution the extended and retroflected end of the tail has become part of the continuous curve of the convex side of the bow, whilst what was previously one half of the outside of the bow is now on the inside of the triangular plate at the tail end. This, together with the expansion of the head to suit the increased number of coils in the spring, produced the characteristic harp-shape of the Romano-Br>ish fibula, in many of which the knob ornament In the middle of the back is the last survival of the collar for fixing the retroilected end of the tail in its place.

The cruciform and T-shaped fibulae, which began in Roman t'.nes and continued to be used by the Anglo-Saxons, resulted from extending the coils of the spring at the head symmetrically on both sides of the pin. In this class of fibula the two outside ends of the coil were joined by a loop passing through the inside of the bow so as to give extra leverage to the spring, or sometimes serving merely as a loop for suspension by means of a chain.

A specimen of silver was found at the Warren,1 near Folkestone, and is now in the British Museum. The lower portion is, unfortunately, broken off, but the retrofiected end of the tail remains, with the little ornamental knob which is the survival of the practically useful collar for securing it to the back of the bow. The coils of the spring on each side of the pin and the connects g loop are clearly seen, together with the loose ring passing through the coi's of the spring and a portion of the chain for suspension.

An exceedingly pretty pair of harp-shaped fibula; of silver, with a well-wrought, chain for suspension, were found near Chorley, Lancashire, with Roman coins dating from Galba to Hadrian, and are now in the British Museum. At the top of each fibula :s a loop for attachment to the chain, and the bodies are beaut i-1 The Reliquary for i<joi, p. 197.

BRONZE FIBULA FROM POLDMi HILL, SOMtRSEL'SHIRl - NOW IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM

BKMZF, FIBULA FROM POLDEN HILL, SOMERSETSHIRE; NOW IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM

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