Symbolical Figuresubjects

We have already mentioned most of the figure-subjects to be found in the Iliberno-Saxon illuminated MSS., and on the Irish ecclesiastical metalwork. It remains therefore only now to take the sculptured monuments into consideration.

It was in Ireland alone that a recognised cycle of scriptural figure-subjects was adopted for the decoration of the crosses and that in nearly all cases the ornament was relegated to a subordinate position. In Scotland and Wales, on the contrary, Scripture scenes are seldom represented on the sculptured monuments; in Cornwall the only figure-subject which occurs on the crosses is the Crucifixion ; and in the Isle of Man the figure-subjects are mostly taken from the Pagan Norse mythology.

The following table shows the Scriptural subjects on the sculptured monuments of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and Cornwall, and the frequency with which they occur:—





Old Tesiatnent—

Adam and Eve





Noah in the Ark




Sacrifice of Isaac




Three Children in Furnace .





Daniel in Den of Lions





David and Harp




David and Lion .





David and Goliath




Jonah and Whale




Ascent of Elijah







New Testament—

Virgin and Child .




Adoration of Magi





Plight into Egypt .



Baptism of Christ .




Miracle of Loaves and Fishes





Raising of Lazarus









Christ in Glory-



Last Judgment


Annunciation .


Christ seized by the Jews



Twelve Apostles


Agnus Dei . .


Dextera Dei


As to the Isle of Man, see Mr. Kermode's exhaustive work of 1907.

In addition to the above there are the following, which are sacred, but not, strictlyspeaking, Scriptural:—





Symbols of Four Evangelists .

















It appears, then, that the Scriptural subjects of most frequent occurrence in Ireland are the Crucifixion, Adam and Eve, the Sacrifice of Isaac, Daniel in the Lions' Den, and the scenes from the Life of David ; and in Scotland, the Crucifixion, Daniel ir the Lions' Den, the Virgin and Child, and the symbols of the four Evangelists.

The subjects common to both Ireland and Scotland are Adam and Eve, Noah (?), Sacrifice of Isaac, Daniel in the Lions' Den, David and the Harp, David and the Lion, Adoration of the Magi, Flight into Egypt, Miracle of Loaves and Fishes, Crucifixion, Christ in Glory, Agnus Dei, Angels.

The subjects which occur n Ireland, but not Scotland, are the Three Children the Furnace, David and Gol: *th, Baptism of Christ, Resurrection, Last Judgment, Dextera Dei, Twelve Apostles. And those which occur in Scotland, but not in Ireland, are Ascent of Elijah, Raising of Lazarus, Jonah and the Whale, Annunciation, Salutation, Miracle of Healing the Blind, Christ and Mary Magdalene, Lazarus.

Of the subjects on the early sculptured stones of Ireland and Scotland the following belong to the cycle of subjects found on the paintings in the Catacombs and the Sculptured Sarcophagi (a.d. 50 to 450) :—

Daniel in the Lions' Den. Jonah and the Whale. Adoration of Magi. Fur- Miracle of Loaves and Fishes. Miracle of Healing the Blind.

Adam and Eve. Noah.

Sacrifice of Isaac. Three Children in the nace. Ascent of Elijah.

The following subjects belong to the Lombardo-Byzantine period (a.d. 700 1100):—


Baptism of Christ. Crucifixion Rrsurrection. Flight into Egypt. Virgin and Child (apart from Magi).

Christ and Mary Magdalene.

Christ in G'cry. Last Judgment. Agnus Dei. Dextera Dei. Twelve Apostles. Symbols of the Four Evangelists. Angels.

Thus the earty Sculptured Stones and the II berno-Saxon MSS. of Great Britain, and the Carlovingian Ivories afford a connecting link between the older symbolism of the primitive Christianity of the Catacomb period and the more strictly ecclesiastical art of mediaeval times.

Quite apart from the fact that King David was a type of Christ, and that his pictures formed the illustrations of the Psalter, it 's not surprising that he should have been an object of popular worship amongst the warlike and musical Celts, to one s:de of whose character his heroic deeds in rending the jaws of the lion and slaying the giant Go1iath, would appeal as strongly as his talent as a harper would to the other.

A small MS. Irish Psalter in the British Museum (Vit. F. i.)1 contains two very curious miniatures, one of David Playing the Harp and the other of David and Goliath.2 The former is interesting, because I think it helps to explain the meaning of a figure sitting on the back of a beast and playing a harp,3 sculptured on one of the panels of the cross at Clonmacnoise. As I hold, this is intended for David; and my reason for supposing this is, because the throne on which David is seated in the miniature in the Psalter is conventionally treated as a beast.

I am not quite sure whether the boat with men in it, on the stone at Cossins, is intended for Noah's Ark or not, but a boat of just the same kind is represented on

1 Westwood's Miniatures, pi. 5.

2 In the miniature of David and Goliath in the Psalter David holds a sling- in one hand and a beast-headed club in the other. The resemblance between this club and the beast's-head symbol, which occurs on the Nome's Law silver ornaments and on several of the early incised slabs in Scotland, may be only accidental, but it is worth noting as a possible clue to the scriptural interpretation of the symbol.

a carved wooden pillar at Olaf's Church,1 Nesland, where it is associated with other Scriptural subjects, amongst others the creation of Eve, Samson and Delilah, and David and Goliath. In this case there can be little doubt but that the boat is intended for Noah's Ark, so that probably the boat at Cossins has the same meaning.

The angels are cherubim, with four wings, and spirals where the wings join on to the body, represen tations of which are to be seen on the § tones at Eassie, Glands, and elsewhere in Scotland. They do not occur on any of the sculptured crosses in Ireland ; but there are instances of angels or the symbols of the four evangelists treated m the same fashion in the St. (jail Gospels, Codex No. 51,- and on the Book Shrine of St. Molaise's Gospels,3 in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy in Dublin, and also on a bronze plaque4 of the Crucifixion, in the same collection. I have recently discovered a very curious instance of an angel of this kind, with three wings on a cross-slab, w ith mterlaced-work, in St. David's Cathedral, giver, in Westwood's Lapidarium Wallue (pi. 63, fig. 4), but the wings arid spirals only shown, and the head of the angel omitted.

The pair of ecclesiastics, sometimes standing, sometimes enthroned, sometimes kneeling, with a bird holding a circular disc in ifs mouth between them, is a subject common to the early sculptured stones of both Scotland0 and Ireland,u but the exact meaning of it

1 L. H. S. Dietrirhsen, Dc Norske Stavkirier, p. 361.

2 C. Purton Cooper's " Appendix A to Report on Rvmer's Foedera," pi 5.

4 Westwood's Miniatures, pi. 51.

5 As at Nigg and St. Vig-eans. Dr. J. Anderson regards the Xig-g-•example as being- intended for St. Paul and St. Anthony.

6 As at Keiis, Moone Abbey, Clonca.

has yet to be ascertained if we are not to take the instance on the Ruthwell cross as an authoritative explanation of the whole.

As I have already pointed out in my Rhind Lectures on Christian Symbolism, there is a nearer afrir ty between the subjects chosen to decorate the bases of the Irish crosses and the representations of hunt'ng scenes, horsemen, chariots, etc., on the upright cross-slabs of the north-east of Scotland, as at Fordown, than the more strictly Scriptural scenes on the shafts of the Irish crosses. The best examples illustrating this are to be seen on the bases of the crosses at Kells (Figs. 5 and 6), Monasterboice, Clonmacnois, Castle Dermot (Fig. 7), and Kilklispeen.

The chariot on the Meigle slab, now lost, may be compared with the chariots to be seen on the shaft of the cross at Killamery, and on the bases of the crosses at Monasterboice, Kilklispeen, and in Kells churchyard; on the base of the cross 11 the street at Kells we have the eagle and iish, as on the " Drosten stone at St. Vigeans,1 and as in the Book of Armagh; and on the base of this same cross, and on the cross of Muredach at Monasterboice, centaurs occur, in some respects like those on the slabs at Aberlemno, Meigle, and Glamis.

On the base of the Kilklispeen cross is portrayed a procession of ecclesiastics taking part in a most remarkable ceremony. On the south side of the base is to be seen a priest carryi ,g a processional cross, and followed by a man leading a horse, on the back of which is la.'I the headless trunk of a man, with

1 Another remarkable instance of the eagle and fish has recently been found on a stone with an Ogam inscription, at Latheron, near Keiss, Caithness.

two birds of prey, or carrion crows, perched or. the top.

On the north side of the base are two ecclesiastics on horseback, followed by two more in a chariot drawn by a pair of horses.

On the east side are several beasts, birds, and a man.

On the west side is a central figure, perhaps a bishop, with three ecclesiastics holding croziers on each side of him.

These scenes can hardly be Scriptural; and if they are not taken from the life of some saint, it is difficult to see what explanation remains to be suggested, except that an event of local importance is here commemorated. The bases of the pillar-cross at Llandough and of the great wheel-cross at Margam, both in Glamorganshire, are the only ones with figures of horsemen upon them ;n Wales.

The symbolism of the shafts of the Irish crosses is so strictly biblical that secular subjects may have been placed on the bases by way of contrast, to indicate the actual world or earth on which the cross stood representing the spiritual world. The. eagle and fish may personify the ocean, and the centaur the desert, for which we have the authority of the bestiaries and the legendary life of St. Anthony.

The points of similarity between the ornamental patterns on the stones of Ireland and Scotland raise questions of too much intricacy to be dealt with here ; but it may be remarked that figure-sculpture forms the chief feature of the Irish crosses—geometrical, zoo-morphic, and foliageous designs being only as a rule applied to the decoration of the smaller panels on the sides of the shafts and to the rings connecting the arms. The upright cross-slabs of Scotland, more particularly those in Ross-shire, approach much more nearly in style—and therefore probably in age— to the illuminated pages of the Iliberno-Saxon MSS. of the best period, than do any of the Irish crosses.

In conclusion, I consider the so-called Celtic style to be a local variety of the Lombardo-Byzantine style, from which the figure-subjects, the interlaced-work, the scrolls of foliage, and many of the strange real and fabulous creatures were apparently borrowed. The Lombardo-Byzantii:e style was introduced into this country after the Saxons had become Christians; and being grafted upon the Pagan art of the Late-Celtic period, was developed n different ways in different parts of Great Britain. However, it in no way detracts from the artistic capacity of the Celt that he should have adapted certain decorative motives belonging to a foreign style Instead of evolving them out of his own inner consciousness. Although his materials may not all have been of native origin, they were so skilfully made use of in combination with native designs, and developed with such exquisite taste, that the result was to produce an entirely original sty le, the like of which the world had never seen before.


Abercorn, cross shaft, 269 Abergele, borse-trappings, 05 Aberlemno, erect cross-slab, 184 Abernethy, 82 Abingdon, pottery, 124 Aboyne, armlet, 13

— ■ erect cross-slab, 184 Achnabreac, spirals at, 5" iiCgean, spiral ornament in the, 54 jEsrca, 82

Alfriston, horse-trappings, 94

- enamelled harness-ring-, 134 Algeria, penannular brooch, 225 Allington, pottery, 124 AUtoofieid, Iron Age burial at, 68 Amber settings, 237 Amerden, sword-sheath, 91 Ammendola, sarcophagus of, 6 Andrews, St., sarcophagus, 193 Angels, 300

A-'mals, figures oi, 14O Antennae, swords with, 86 Anthony, St., 302 Anthropomorphic designs, Late-

Celtic, 144 Anthropomorphs in CelticChristian art, 294

Apollinare in Classe, Sant", Ra-

venr.a, 244 Archdall, Castle, spirals at, 51 Ardagh, chalice, 216, 235 Ardakillen Crannog, 81 ----fibula, 170

Ardchattan, erect cross-slab, 184 Ardoch, 82

— horse-trappings, 95 Aristotle, 2 Armagh, bi ll, 199

Armlets, enamelled, 134

— - of glass, Late-Celtic, 141 Arria and Paetus, 5 Arras, a timet, 114

Aryans, 1

Aspatria, sculptured cist, 55 Assyr.t, jet necklace from, 42 Aston Clinton, pottery, 124 Athenry, dagger-sheath, 92 Athlone, Crucifixion, 218 Auchendolly, horse-trappings, 95 Auohenbadie, armlf t, 113 Aust-on-Severr., statuette, 118 Avebury, fibula, 10b Axe-head of bronze with spirals, 52

— sculptures, 55 AycliiFe, cross-shaft, 269 Aylesford, bucket, 116, 145

Ayton Moor, cup-marks at, 57

Backworth, pair of fibula?, 103

- saucepan, ji) Badony, Lower, bell, 198 Baglar, cross-slab, 18? Bakerhill, sculptured cist, 55 Balralk, jet necklace from, 42 Ballinderry Crannog, 8i

Balmarlelian, finds at, 77 -- mirror, 115

Balls, stone, of Bronze Age, 50 Ballycostello, horse-trappings, Q5 Ballynaminton, horse-trappings, 95

Bandaging patterns, 38 Bangor, bell, 201 Bapchilc',, horse-trappings, 94 Barganj House, sword-shcath, 91 Barlaston, bowl, 58, 166 Barlaston, Iron Age burial at, 68 Harrington, enamelled bowl, 135 Barrochan, cross, 19:* Bartlow Hills, enamelled vessel, 138 Basketry, Late-Celtic, 143 Battersea, shield, 93 - sword-sheath, 91 Beadt d torques, 159 Beads, Late-Celtic, T25 141 Belhelvie, aimlet, 113 Bells, Celtic, 194 Bell-shrines, 204.

Benty Grange, t namelled bowl, 134

— lion Age burial at, 67 Berkshire, triskele pendant, 121 Brrnaldby Moor, sculptured cist, 55 Berru, helmet from, 12 Beverley, Iron Age burials at, 65 Bibracte, enamels from, 138 Bigbury Camp, 82

Birdlip. Bowl, 116

— mirror, 115 Birnie, bell, 198 Birrenswark, 82

Bip/enswark, horse-trappings, 95 Biskra, penannular broo< h, 225 Black II; don, cup-marks at, 37 Blackshaw, spirals at, 50 Blandtord, fibulai, 106 Blathmar, crozier, 208 Boars' tusks from Arras, 64 Bones, engraved, 150 ! lone work Late-Celtic, 127 Bonville, fibula, 106 Book-shrines, 208 Bowl, Barlaston, ¡66

— - enamelled, Mdklebust, 160 Bowls, 7_at<"-Celtic, 116

-- with enamelltd handles, 134 Boxmoor, sword-sheath, qi Braddan, Kirk, wheel-cross, 188 Brairtree, pottery, 124 Braughing, enamelled vessel, 137 Brazing, 132 Breac Mnedoc, 211 Bride, Kirk, toss, 186

Bridle-bit, enamelled, Rise, 133

--Birrenswark, 133

Brighton, pottery 125 British Numismatic Society, 79 Brodie, erect cross-slab, 184 Broighter, Limavady, find of gold ornaments, 100 Brooch, penannular, 223 Bronze Age burials, 23

--chronology of, 19

---patterns which survived into the Iron Age, 60 Brough, 82

Brough, fibula, 107, 154 Brythons, 17 Buckets, 144-6

— Late-Ccitic, 116 Bugthorpe, sword-sheath, 91 Burghead, 82

Hu-ials ot Iron Age, 65 Bunrannoc.h, armlet, 113 Byzantine art, 239, 244

Caburn, Mount, opp;dum at, 74 Caistor, enamelled bowl, 135 Calderstones, spirals at, 50 Camborne, cross-slab, 182 Came Down, cup -marks at, 57 Camerot Muir, spirals at, 50 Canterbury, châtelaine, 115

Oapel Garmon, fire-dogs, 118, 141 Cappagh, bell, 199 Care*, cross, 193 ('arham, sword-sheath, 91 Carlingwark Loch, tankard, 116 < larlswarl Cavern, armlet, 114 Carlton, inl?id object, '39 Camban, sculptured cist, 55 Cam Brè, 16

Carnwath, sculptured cist, 55 Cashel, bell, ->0' Castell Nado'ig, 82 Casting metal, Iron Age, 130 Castle Dermot, 192 Castle Ne we, a.mlet, 113 ---weem at, 82

— — enamelled armlets, 134 Castlethorpe, armlet, T r4 Cauldrons of bronze, 86

Caves inhabited by Brit-Welsh, 73, 81

Celicf, 4

Celtic tribes in Britain, 17 Celt in classical sculpture, 5 Celts of hronze, 41 Centaur, 302 Certosa sit-ila?, 145 Chad, St. , Bonk of, 175 Chains, 237

Chalices, Celtio, 215 Chalk drums from Folkton, 5b Champlevé enamel, 136 Characteristics of Celtic Christian style, 254 -- L.'te-Celtir. style, 143 Chariots, 301

- wheels fr m Arras, £4 Châtelaines, Late-Celtic, 115 Chedworth, Chi-Rho Monogram,

ChequPrwork. Late-Celtic, 160 Cherubim, 300 Chesterfbrd, pottery, 124 Chesterford, Great, Kimmeridge shale vessel, 128 Chesters, Great, fibula, 107 Chesterton, bowl, 167 ■ - enamelled b"wi, 135 Chevron patterns, 28

— - Late-Celtic, 160 Chi-Rho Monogram, 163 Chorley, chains, 140

- pair of tibula', 102 Christianity in Britain, 162-5 Chronology of Bronze Age, 19 Circles, concentric, 55 Circular knotwrk. ^73 Cirencester, fibula, 107

Cists of Bronze Age with sculp-«>re, 55

Cividale, Baptiste ry of Calistus, 258 Claughton Moor, cup-marks at, 57 Clemente, San, Rome, 244, 25R Clogher, fibula, 105

bell) 199 Cloisonne enamel, 136 Clonmacnois, 190

C'looncunra, horse-trpppin^s, 95 Clova, horse-trappings, 95 Clyde Crannog, comb, 128 Coins, ancient ïiritish, 77

- with Late-Celtic finds, 88 Cookhum, dagger-sheath, 92 Colchester, Kirrneridge shale vessel, 12S

Commios, coins of, 78

Corfe Castle, Kimmeridge shale vessel, 128 Cowlam, fibula, 106 Cochno, wheel symbol at, 59 Coffey, George, theory on spiral orrament, 53 Coffins, stor e, 193 Coilsfield, spirals at, 50

— sculptured cist, 55 Coinage, Celtic, 14 Collar, Late-Celtic, 153 Collars, Late-Celtic, 10} Colours used by Celtic scribes, 23,3 Columba's Psalter, shrine of, 209 Compass-work. 150

Conchan, wheel-cross, 1R8 Cong, cross, 213 Coped stones, 182 Copenhagen, reliquary, 211 Coral settings, 237 Cossins, erect cross-slab, 184 Cottetdale, sword-sheath, yi Cowl?m, armiet, 114

- Iron Age burials at, 65 Craigie Wood, sculpture d cist, 55 Craigyw.arren, pin, 10H Crarnogs, 81

Craven Arms, châtelaine, 115 Crawfordjohn, silver chains, 170 Cremation in Bronze Age, 23 Crichie, horse-trappings, 95 Cricklade, fibula, 106 Crosby Ravensworth, spoons, 120 Cross, Celtic, evolution of, 186

— - processional, 213 Cross-slabs, 181

Crossthwaite, enamelled bowl, 134 C.roy, penannular brooc.b, 228 Croziers, Celtic, 206 Cruciform breaks in plait, 262

— patterns, 236 Crucifixion plaques, 218 Crystal settings, 237 Cuerdale, penannular brooch, 227 Culan, St., bell-shrinc, 204

Culbin Sands, armlet, 113 Cumdachs, 20«

Cup-and-ring-sculpture at Ilklpy, 59

----Kirkcudbright, 59

---Lochgilphead, 59

Cup-marked stones, 57

Danes' Graves, uorse-trappings, 94

--Iron Age bjrials, 65

Dartmoor, if> Datchet, tibula, ic6, 139 Dates of Late-Celtic finds, 85 Decorative motives in Bronze Age,

Delphi sacked by the Gauls, } Denmark, spiral ornament in, 51 Deepdale Cave, 76, 81

— looped wire armlets, 739 Diagonal lines, use of, tx>

— setting-out lines, 25: Dimma's Book, shrine of, 209 Discs of repoussé bronze, T.ale-

--Late-Celtic, 118

Dorchester, sword-sheath, 91 Dornoch Links, cup-marks at, 57 Dots, rows of, in decoration, 39

— horse-trappings, 95 Dowkerbottom Cave, fibula, 107 Dowth, spirals at, 50 Drmking-cup urns, 35 Drumcliff, cross, 192 Drumragh, bell, 199 Dunfallandy, erect cross-slab, 184,

Durkeld, Little, bell, 198 Dupplin, cross, 192 Duirow, cross, 192

— - shrine of Book ot, Dyce, erect cross-slab, 184 Dysert, crozier, 208

F.agle and fish, 301 Ecclesiastics, 301 Eday, spirals a 50 Fgypt, spiral ornament in, 54 Lilcan Finan. bell, 198

Eliseg:s Pillar, Vaile Crucis, 193 Elkstine, cup-marks at, 57 Elveden, pottery, 124 - tankaru, lib t-mMeton, sword-sheath, 91 Kmbsay, collar, 111 Km'.agh, horse-trappings, 95 Enamelling, Iron Age, 1 --process of, 135 [235

Enamels of Christian Celtic period, F.ndellion, St., C-hi-Kho Monogram, 161 Engraved patterns, Iron Age, 132 F.ppillos, coins of, 78 Essex, pottery, 122 Evolution of Celtic cross, 18b

Farley Heath, 82

— fibu'a, 107 Fameli, cross-slab, 184 tarr, erect cross-slab, 184 tens, the, horse-trappings, 94 Ferriby, South, silver coins, 79 Fibula, evolution of, 99

— from ^Esica, 152 Fibulie, enamelled, 134

worn in pairs with chain, 104 Figure drawing in Celtic Christian art, 256

Figure-subjects in Celtic Christian art, 296 Filigree-work, 737 Finds, Late-Celtic, dates of, 85

---geographical distribution of,

— Late-Celtic, 118 Firth, spirals at, ¿0 Flamboyant ornament, Late-Celtic,

Flash}, sword-sheath, 91 Tr lutes, Late-Celtic, 118 Foliage in Celtic Christian art, 247, 204

in Late-Celtic art, 148 Folkton, chalk drums from, 56 Food-vessel urns, 25 Ford West Field, sculptured cist, 55 Forres, erect cross-slab, 184 Forteviot, hell, 198 Frampton,Chi Rho Monogram, 163 Fordoun, erect cross-slab. 184, 301

Galati, 4

Garton, bell, 19b Ciaulcross, pin, 108 Gauls, Cisalpine, "5 Geographical distribution of Late-

Celtic finds, 79 Ghegan Ruck, com o, 128 Giacomo, San, Venicc, 245 Gilton, mirror, L15 Giorgio, San, di Valpolicella, 244, ^ 258

Gladiator, the Dying, 5 Glamis, erect cross-slab, 184 Glass, Late-Celtic, 125, 141

Glastonb-iry Lake-Dwellings, 72,81

— Lake Village, pottery, 142

Glcncchimbkille, spirals at, 53 Glencotho, nword-sheath, 97 Glenfahiin, Ogam stone, 165 Gobnet, St., stone of, 165 Goidelic Celts, 15 Goidels, "7

Golden Grove, cross, 261

Oolspie, e^ect cross-slab, 184 Gorge-Meillet, helmet from, 12 Gospels, 173 Goulien, bell, 199 Gourilon, chalice, 215 Govan, sarcophagus, 193 Graefcwyl, 13

Grange of Conan, weem at, 82

Greenloan, cup-marks at, 57 Greenwich, enamelled bowl, 135 Grimspound, 16

Grimthorpe, Iron Age burial at, 65

Guthrie Castle, bell-shrine, 204

Hagbourne Hill, horse-trappings, 95

— - Late-Celtic finds at, 7b HaUristningar, 60 Ilallstatt, cemetcry of, 7

Hambledown Hill, 82 Ham Hill, 82

Ilamdon Hi", horse-trappings, 95

---Late-Critic finds at, 76

I lammer-headed pins, 108 Hammersmith, fibula, 100 Hand-grasping figures, 294 Harness-mountings, 98 — enamelled, 134 Harness-rings, enamelled, 134

— Late-Celtic, 96 Harray, brcch of, 82 Ilartlip, sarcophagus, 162 Haughton - le - Skerne, sword -

shtath, 91 Hay Hill, fire-dogs, 118 Head ornaments for horses, 98 Hetataeus, 2 [163

Helen's, St., Chi-Rlio Monogram, Helmet from fterjrv, 12

- from Gorge-Meillet, 12 Helmets, Late-Celtic, 93 Henshole, horse-trappings, 95 Hessleskew, chariot-wheels, 98

— horse-trappings, 94 Hexagon patterns, 36 High Crosses, 188 Highfield Pits, pottery, 125 Hilton, ert -t cross-slab, 184 Hinksey, N., dagger-sheath, 92 Hitchin, pottery, 124

Hod Hill, 82

--sword-sheath qi

Hollows Tower, spirals at, 50 Ilook-and-disc ornaments, Late-

Celtic. 121 Horns with terminal knobs, 14& Horse s head ornaments, 98 Horse-tr ppings from Arras, 64

Hounslow, figures of animals, 146 Hunsbury, fibula, i<6

— Late-Celtic nppidum at, 73

— triskele pendant. 121 Hunterston, brooch, 231 Ilyndford Crannog, 81

Iberians, 15

Icklingham, .sword-sheath, 91

Ilkley, cup-and-ring sculpture, 59

— rock-sculptures at, 57 Iniense-cuo u-ns, 25 Inchbrayock, erect. ross-slab, 184 Ingoe, cap-ma rks at, 57 Inhumation in Bronze Age, 23 Inishkeu, be'l, 203

Ink used by Celtic scribes, 232 Itna, cross, 192 Insh, bell, 198 Intf rlaced-work, 246

- evolution of, 257 Iivergowrie, erect cross-slab, 184 Ireland, spoons, 121 Italo-Greek objects found at Ayles-

ford, 71 Iron Age finds, 61

Jet necklaces, 42

Jezerine, chains, 140

Just, St., Chi-Rho Monogram, 163

Kells, Book of, 174 Kells, cross, 192, 224, 233

— shrine of Book of, 208 Kelko Cave, 76, 81 Kent's Cavern, 76, Si

Keshkerrigan, bowi, 117 Keston, 16

Kettleburn, broch of, 82

Key-patterns, 278

K'lbroney, bell, 198

Kij'jurn, cup-marks at, 57

Kildalton, cross, 192

K!1 iare,Co. ,penannularbrooch,228

Kilfenura, cross, ig2

Ki'ham, chariot-wheels, 98

Kilkeeran, horse-trappings, 95

Ki.klispeen, cross, 192

Killarney, crozier, 207

Kii'een C< rmac, Ogam stone, 165 Killing Hill, spirals at, 51 Kihnunham, bell, 198 Kilmartin, cup-and-ring sculpture, 59

— sculptured 01st, 55 Kilmichael Glassary, bell-shrine,

Ki.nsea, f.bnla, 107 K'mm-ridge shale objects, 128 Kingsholm, pottery, 125

Kingsholm, triskele pendant, 121 King's Mountain, spirals at, 50 Kingston, socketed-celts, 41 Kingston Down, enamelled bowl, '35

K:rkby Thore, fibula, 107 Kirkcudliright, cup-and-ring sculp ture, 59 K'rkhead Cave, 75, 81 Kirkly Thore, 82 ' Kirkmadrine, Chi-Rho Monogram, " ih3

K;rk Whelpington, cup-marks at,57 Kirriemuir, horse-trappings, 95 Kit s Coty House, oottery, 124 Krobs on horns of beasts, 148 Kno^kmany, spirals at, 51 Knot, spiral, 270 Knots used in Celtic art, 265 Knotwork, circular, 273

Lacrin's, St., Arm, shrine of, 210 Lagure Crannog, 81

j— pin, 108 Cake -dwellings, 8r Lak>-dwellings at Glastonbury, 72 Lanivet, coptd stone, 182 Lashing patterns, 38 Late-Ce!t:c finds, dates of, 85

--geographical distribution of,

La Tene, oppidurn 'if, 9 Latheron, eagle and fish, 301 Lattice-work patterns, 34 Leather-work, 237 Leicester, horse-trappings, <>4 I.ilbum Hill, spirals at, 50 Limavady, gold chains, 139 Lmavady, gold collar, 109, 153 Lincoln, sword-sheath, 91 Lindisfarne Book, 177 Linlithgowshire, patera, 137 Lismore, crozier, 207 Lisnacrcghera Crannog, 81

- sword-sheath, 91 Llanbadarr r'aivr, cross, 193 1 lanbedr, spirals at, 50 Llantair, spoms, 121

Llandough, cross, 193 Liandyssyl, collar, iti Llangenydd, cross-shaft, 270 Llangystenyn, ljcll, 198 Llangwynodl, bell, 200 Llarrhyddlid, bell, 198 L'antwit Major, cross, 186, 261 I.ochar Moss, bowl, 116 --collar, 111

Lochgilphead, cup-and-ring sculpture, 59 Lochlee Crannog, 81 --woodwork, 127

London, tn^melled harness-ring, 134

— sword-sheath, 91 Looped wirework, 139 I.orrha, bell, 201 Loughcrew, spirals at, 50 Lough Erne, reliquary, 210 Lough Lene Castle, bell, 201 Loughnashade, trumpet, 118 Lough Ravel Crannog, beads, 125 I.ozenge patterns, 32

Lullingstone, enamelled bowl, 135

J.unulw, gold, 41

Lumphanan, stone hall from, 50

MacPurnan, Gospeis, 175 MacRegol, Gospels of, 17^ Madoes, St.. erect cross-slab, 183 Maen Achwyfan, cross, 193 Maes Mynach, cross-shaft, 270 Magny uambert, 12 Maiden Castle, 82 Maiden Stone, erect cross-slab, 184 Mai I.umkun, erect cross-slab, 1S6

Maltbeck, enamelled vessel, 138 Malton, fibula, 107 Malton, New, 8;-Alancha, La, spirals at, 50 Manchan, St., shrine of. ,U2 Manuscripts, illuminated, 173 Margam, cross, 186 Mar'borough bucket, 116, 144 Marne, La, cemeteries of, 11 Mate rials for study of Celtic art in Bronze Age, 22

Materials for study of Celtic art in

Iron Age, 90 Materials for study of Celtic Christian art, 172 Materials used by Celtic sculptors, 333

Maughanby, cup-marks at, 57

— erect cross-slab, 184 Melfort, jet necklace from, 42 Metallurgy, Iron Age, 130 Metals used by Christian Celts,

Metal-work, Christian Celtic, 194 Methods employed by Celtic sculptors, 233

Methods employed by Ceitic metalworkers, 23 j Mevagh, wheel and symbol at, 59 Middleby, horse-trappings, 95 Middleton Common, Iron Age Durial £.t, 67

Midrileton Moor, enamelled bowl, »34

Migvie, erect cross-slab, 184 Mirrors, Late-Celtic, 115 Mirror, Trelan Bahow, 131 Mogue, St., bell-shrine, ¿0} Moklobust, enamelled bow!, 160 Molaise's Gospels, shrine of, 209 Monasterboice, cross, 100, 224 Monifieth, erect cross-slab, 1S4 Monogram, Chi Rho, 163 Moont Abbey, cross, 192 Mont Beuvray, enamels from, 138

Monuments, scu'ptured, of Christian period, 180 Monytrusk, reliquary, 210 Moresb}-, pin, 108 Moreton Hall, sword-sheath, 91 Morwiek, spirals at, 50 Motives, decorative, in Bronze Age, 23

Motives used in Christian Ctlt-c art, 242

Mount Batten, Iron Age cemetery at, 70

Mount Bures, fire-dogs, 118 Mount Cabum, pottery, 125 Mount Sorrel, bucket, 116, 14ft Mountings for harness, 98

Mowroad, uillar, m Mura, St., bell-shrine, 204 Mycenaean art, 57

Nancy, chaiice, ¿15 Navan Rath, ftlxjia, 106 Necklaces of jet, 42 Needham Market, bowl, 135 Neolithic dwellings, 16 N'puadd Siarman, cross, 190 Nevern, cross, igi Newcastle, chains, 140 Newgrange tumulus, 43 Newry, f rmlet, 113 Niello, 235

Ntgg, erect cross-slab, 182 Nome's Law, leaf-shaped plates, 170

— — pin, 108 • Northfield, Late-Celtic village, 82 Norton, enamelled fibula, 134

— enamelled harness-rings, 134

Ogam-inscribed stones, Ib5 Okstrow, broch of, 82 •— tankard, 116 Old Parks, tumulus, 56 Orange, Triumph? 1 Arch of, 5 Orrhomenos, spiral orname nt at, 54 Origin of early Christian art, 238 Ornovasso, chains, 140 Orton S«»r, penarnuia- brooch, 227 Over-Haddon, c n£.melled bowl, 134 Oxford, enamelled bowl, 135

Fails, Late-Celtic, 116 F ard Q Celts, 18 Panels, ornament arranged in, 255 Papil, erect cross-slab, 184 Parisi, 12

Patera, enamelled, 137 Patrick's Will, St., be!l-shr:ne, 204 Patrick's, St., Gospels, shrine of,

Penally, cross, 193 Penannular brooch, 223 Pen Arthur, cross-slab, 181 Penbryn, spoons, -21 Fenmaohno, Chi-Rh o Monogram, 1C13

Penmon, cross, 185

Pens used by Celtic scribes, 232

Pentre Poeth, Ogam stone, 165 Ferdeswell, collar, 11 ■ Perfection of details of Celtic ornament, 25b Perforated metal plates, 236 Pergamos, 5

Perth, penannular brooch, 231 Phi'lack, Chi Rho Monogram, 163 Philostratus, 133 Pilling Moss, dagger-sheath, 92 Pins, Celtic, 219 '

— Late-Ccltic, 107 Pitalpin, armlet, 113 Pitkelloney, armle t, 113

— enamelled armlets, 134 Plait, cruciform breaks 1 n, ..'62

— horizontal and vertical breaks in, 259

Plaques with Crucifixion, 218 Flato, 2 Plaitwork, 259 Planton Castle, armlet, 113 Poldei, Hill, harness-ring, 134

Pol de Léon, St., bell, 201 l'olybius, 3 Poole's Cave, 76, 81 Port-Flanc, dolmen, 39 Portland, Isle of, colla-, 111 Pottery, Late-Celtic, 121, 142

— painted, Mont Heuvray, 141

- sepulchral, in Bronze Age, 24 Prassede, San, Rcme, 258 l'resles, enamels from, 138 Prickwillow, saucepan, 117 ProcessesinCelticChristianArt, 232

Psalter of St. John's College, Cambridge, 178

— Vesp. A. i., 178 -Vit. F. xi,- 178 Psalters, 176

Fyrmont, enamelled vessel, 138 Pjtheas, 3

Ramsgate, pottery, 114 Rathe inratli, wooden bowl, 127 Ravenna, screen, 245 Reask, inscribed stone, 166 Rectilinear patterns in Late-Ccltic a-*. 159 Redlands, sculptured cist, 55


Relic shrines, 210 Repoussé metal-work, Iron Age, '3*

Rhayader, gold armlet, 170 Ribchester, 82

fibula, 107 Riiemarchus, Psalter of, 176 Ringham Low. fibula, 106 "iings for harness, 96 Rise, horse-tiappings, gj Risingham, 82

— cnimelled fibula, 134 --fibula, -07 Riveting, Iron Age, 132 Rock-sculpture in Scandinavia, 60 Rodrnbach, »3

Rogart, penannular brooch, 228 Rome taken by the Gauls, 4 Roscmurkie, ert.ct cross-slab, 184, 283

Rossii; Priory, erect cross-slab, 184 Rotherley, 82 Round towers, 196 Rudstone, sword-sheath, 91

Sadberge, sw<;rd-shfath, 91 Safety-pin type of fibula, 00 Sahanr. Taney, crucifortri harness-mounting, ij8 [143

--enamelled harness-mounting,

--horse-trappings, 94

Saltir>- patterns, 35 Sandy, pottery, 124 Sarcophagi, 103 Saucepans, Kelto-Roman, 117 Scandinavia, rock-sculpture in, 60

- - spiral ornament in, il [252 Scandinavian features in Celtic art, Scattery Island, bell, 198, & 14 Scribes, pens, ink, etc., used by. 232 Scripture subjects in Celtic ar:, 296 Sculptured monuments of Christian period, 180 Sculptured stone at Xewgrange, 49 Sculptured stones, Late-Celtic, 128 Sculpture on Bronze Age cists, 55 Seafield Tower, armlet, 113 Seaford, pottery, 124 Seal-box, enamelled, 134 Seamill Fort, 82

---t.riskele pendant, 121

Sep-ilc.hra' remains of Iron Age, 63 Seskm, sculptured cist, 55 Sesto-Calende, 9

Settings of coral, amber, glass, and crystal, 237 Shading, kinds of, in Late-Celtic art, j 5b

Shandwiek, erect cross-slab, 184 Sheen, cup-marks at. 57 Shields, L^te-Celtic, 92

- South, horse-trappings, 94 Shoebury, armlet, 114 Shoeburv, pottery, 124 Shrines of bells, 204

— enamelled stand, 134 ■ fibuia, 107, 154 Sil:an, cross-shaft, 270 Silures, 18

Sital«, Hallstatt, 145

Skaill, penannular brooch, 227 Sliabh n» Calliaghe, 43

Soldering, 132 Somme-Bionni", 13 Southill, Chi-Rho Monogram, 163 Southwark. dagger-sheath, 92 Spear-hcad of Bronze Age, 39 Spiral, closely coiled, to

— ornament- at Newgrange, 48

--at Orchomenos, 54

Spirals 'n Celtic Christian art, 284

- from Book of Durrow, if9 Spoons, I.ate-Celtie, 119 Stamfordbury, fire-dogs, 118 Stamford Hill, armlet, 114 --fibula, 106

Stand, enamelled, 134 Stai.don, enamelled vessel, 13ft Stanhope, armlet, 113 Stanton, cup-marks at, 57 Stanwick, horse-trappings, 94

— Late-Celtic finds at 75

- sword-sheath, 91 Step-patterns, 277

Stival, bell, 200 Stockholm. Gospels, 175 Stones, sculptured, Late-Celtic, 128 Storr, p^nannular brooch, 227 Stowe Missal, cover of, 170

Strarhfiilan, bell, 201 Strokes town Crannog, 81

Rtrypes, spirals at, 5n Style. Late-Celtic, 143 Swastika mthr ipomorphs, 204

— designs, Late-Celtic, '54 Sweden, bronze with spirals from, 52 Swnrcl, Hallstatt, F Sword-sheath from La T^ne. 11

— Hunsbu-y, -32 Sword-sheaths, Late Ctltic, 91 Swords with «nte^nas, 86 Symbols used in Bronze Age, 22

Tai.kard. Late-Celtic, 142, 151 Tankards, Late-Celtic, 116 laplow, spear-head, 40 Ta.ra brooch, 229 --chains, 140

— horse's Wcad ornament, 98 Tassilo, chalice of, 215 Tayfield, jet necklace,

Ti chnkal processes, Iron Age, 129

--in Celtic Christian art, 232

T' rmonterhin, cross, 192 Textile patterns, Iron Age, 129 Thames, river, htlmet. 93

— — Lat'.-Celtic finds in, 77 Thirst House Cave, armlet, 114 ---(b.itf.laine, 115

- - lutes, 1 8 T:llycou!try, sculptured list, 55 Tir,< ommios, coins of, 78 Trawsfynydd, tarkard, 142, 151 Treceiri, 82

-- triskele pendant, 121 Trela" Bahow. mirror, 115. 131

— — Iron Agf burials at, 69 Tr' noweth. rollar, m Triangle patterns, 31

Triangular knotwork, 276 Triskele ajithropi.morphs, 294

- pendants, Late Celtic, . 21 lorques, beaded, 159, jet necklace trom, 42 Iorrs, helmet, 93 Torwuodlee, bruc.h of, 82

- horse-trappings, 95 lowers, reund, [96 Towle, stone ball from, 50 lmmpet. Late-Celtic, 118 Tuari, :ross, 210 TuSylease, cross-slab, 181 Tumulus at Newgrange, 34

Tnroe, Late-Celtic sculpture., 128 Tweed, river, Late-Celtic finds in, 77

Twyford, bucket, 146 Tjne, fibula, 1C7

Uffizi Museum. 98

---enamelled harness-mounting,

Ulbster, erect cross-slab, 184, 27b Unstan, urn from, 38 Urns, cinerary , 24 Urquhart, pin, 108

Victor. Cave at Settle, 76, 81

- -fibula, 107, 154 Vigeans, St, ere't cross-slab, 184 Verica, coins of, 78

Waimer, fibu,a, 105

- spoon, 121 Wanisworih. dagger-sheath, 92 Warden, mirror, 115

Warden, Old, K'mmeridge shale vessel. -2S Warren, Folkestone, fibula, 102 Wart on, swore -sheath, 91 Water Eaton, fibula, 106

Watsch situlae, 145 Wpllingborough, 82 Westhab, horse-trappings, 94

- enamelled harness-rings, -34 Weston, spoons, 121, 147 Weymouth, potter}-, 124 Wheel-crosses, t8S

Wheel symbol ill Bronze Age, 59 \\ hitechurch, pottery, 124 Winding band patterns, 57 Witham, nver, dagger-sheath, 92

Whithorn, C.hi- V ho Monogram,

- cross-shaft, 270 Woodwork, Late-Celtic, 126 Woodwray, erect n oss-slab, 184

Wooler, c-up-and-ring sculpture, 59 Wraxhall, collar, 11 Wrought metal-work, Iron Age, 30

Wykcbam Moor, cup-marks at, 57

Zoömorphic designs, Late-Celtic, >44

Zoomorphs in Celtic Christian art, 249, 287


Celtics Migration Map

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