The Developed Styles in Eastern Europe

As a result of the work of Kruta, Szabo and others, much more is now known than at the time of Jacobsthal's pioneering research about the impact of the Waldalgesheim style in eastern Central Europe, and its formative role in creating there the three-dimensional Plastic Style and the distinctive Hungarian Sword Style of the ensuing period. Some examples of the Developed Style from Bohemia bear striking similarities to the Waldalgesheim group, and could even have been the product of a Celtic workshop in northern Italy (Kruta, 1975). The ornamental fitting from Cizkovice shows under-and-over figure-of-eight tendrils in a triangular field, terminating in a palmettederivative with axillar infillings, in a manner that could have been the product of the same workshop as some of the Waldalgesheim pieces. The bronze bracelet from Klobuky is ornamented with leaf-tendrils leading into peltate 'fans' in a manner seen on several western pieces, and the designs on bracelets from Jenisuv Ujezd and Lahost are sufficiently close to suggests that they could be the product of the same workshop. Tendrils with curving triangles also appear in relief on the bows of two brooches from Lahost (Kruta, 1975, Figures 7, 4 and 6) in a style quite closely paralleled on the bronze torc from Fiad in Hungary and again on a bronze torc of similar type from Muttenz in Switzerland (Szabo, 1992). Nevertheless, the absolute numbers of such pieces in Bohemia are not great, and some, like the gold torc from Oploty, are almost certainly imports from an Italo-Celtic workshop, so that current opinion favours a relatively brief period of contact with northern Italy as the most likely catalyst for their appearance.

In Hungary too, the question of origins has dominated much of recent research, with direct influence from northern Italy, though not through direct imports, currently vying with the alternative introduction of the new style from Western Europe. An unprovenanced iron spear-head from Hungary is regularly cited as having elements in common with the Waldalgesheim torc ornament, notably the lyre-palmettes and star-rosettes (Szabo, 1992, 120-1; Szabo and Petres, 1992, 19-20). These are balanced by two opposed pairs of conjoined triskeles to form a symmetrically balanced composition. The border of the blade is outlined by a wavy line in a manner also familiar in the west. The main ornamental panel of the Hungarian spear-head lacks the over-and-under figure-of-eight, characteristic of Waldalgesheim, but this does appear in cruder execution

Figure 4.9 Münsingen, Berne. A: cemetery plan. B: some characteristic brooch types. Adapted from Hodson (1968).
Waldalgesheim Burial
Figure 4.9 Continued.

on the socket. The best example of the sinuous tendril of the Waldalgesheim Style is the Litér scabbard (Figure 4.10, 4), the back plate of which is ornamented in pure Waldalgesheim Style in three panels, the upper and lower triangular, the middle one a diagonal band. The design is a wave-tendril leading through a series of curved triangles or vortexes, the third arm of the tendril ending in a rounded, spatulate terminal. The Italian scabbards are plainly related, though they differ in detail; Moscano di Fabriano (Figure 4.10, 3) does not have the curved triangles and on the Filottrano scabbard (Figure 4.10, 2) the triangles are linked by fleshy leaf-tendrils. The closest analogy for the Litér design, as Szabo and Petres (1992, 20) pointed out, is the ornamental fragment on the Larchant scabbard from the Champagne, but the choice of a diagonal field remains a distinctively eastern trait.

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