Spiritual development being used for the Peninsula At Glencolmkille a stone

slab marking the stopping-place promotion of fertility, healing and seership. called Farranmacbridc has a hole at the centre of the wheel-cross near the top. It is said that the pilgrim who looks through the hole while 'doing the round' will get a glimpse of heaven.

The Pictish cross-slab at Aberlemno has one of the four round corners of the cross drilled right through, and many wheel-headed crosses have not one hole, but four, that connect the front with the back. More generally, the whole genre of'four-holed' and wheel-headed crosses are instances of the veneration of holy holed stones. The motif of the four holes, present already in German Celtic stones from the sixth century bce, appears also in the early pillar-cross from Cam Caca at Melin-cwrt, Resolfen, in West Glamorgan. This has a carved circle in which is a cross potent. This kind of cross is composed of four T-shaped pieces, which alludes to the tan cross, symbol of the father of monasticism, St Anthony of Egypt. In the four angles of this cross are four depressions or dots that appear in later crosses as holes or circles.

Some of these standing cross-stones are likely to have been holy stones sacred to the elder faith that were reconsecrated as Christian monuments by being carved with the symbols of the newer religion. 'The earliest preachers of Christianity do not seem to have made violent attacks upon the creeds and beliefs of their converts,' wrote Alfred Rimmer in Ancient Stone Crosses of England (Virtue and Co, 1875), '... they pointed to the groves and holy wells, and dedicated them in another name. Crossroads also were held peculiarly sacred in the early times, and even as far back as the period of the Druids they were marked by upright stones, not dissimilar to those we see at Stonehenge, though, of course, much smaller, and these stones were chiselled on the upper part with a cross in relief.' Although many Celtic churches were founded on new sites, some took over places of Pagan sanctity. The standing stones that marked the old sanctuaries were re-used in the fabric of the new building, or allowed to remain in the churchyard re-consecrated as crosses. There are many instances of this process throughout the Celtic realms. In Scotland, the Fifeshire church of Dunino incorporates megaliths which were Christianized with crosses inscribed upon them. An example of a standing stone that became a kind of cross can be seen in the churchyard at Bridell in Dyfed, which contains a megalith upon which is an ogham inscription commemorating 'Nettasagrus, descendant of Brecos'. A cross inscribed inside a circle was added later. In Wales, the re-use of ancient stones was a common practice throughout history, continuing well into the nineteenth century. In 1876, for instance, an ogham-inscribed wheel-cross slab at Staynton in Pembrokeshire was re-used as the tombstone of T. Harries, who died on 30 January that year, aged 84.

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