Classificatory sentences

In these sentences the copula is used and the order of elements is copula + complement + subject, though the copula may be optionally deleted if it is in the present tense and positive and the complement consists of more than a simple noun. The complement may be an indefinite noun or noun phrase - neither a definite noun nor a personal pronoun may appear as principal complement in classificatory sentences. In those cases where the logical subject is a personal pronoun, it appears in the oblique...

Sound system

The major set of phonological differences between Irish dialects lies in the realm of the operation of both synchronic and diachronic word-stress rules and their effects mainly on the quantity of vowels within unstressed syllables. Historically, it appears to have been the case that Irish developed a strong stress accent on the initial syllable of words during the pre-Old Irish period of the Ogam inscriptions, leading to a reduction of original long vowels in unstressed syllables. The...

Simple and complex sentences

Simple sentences, apart from imperatives, consist of at least two elements-verb and subject - with the addition of a complement to contain certain obligatory elements such as direct and indirect object. Compound sentences contain two or more simple sentence structures linked by either co-ordinating or subordinating conjunctions. The former group is illustrated by words such as agus 'and', ach 'but', nd 'or', o 'since', which are followed by full independent clauses 4 ihog mi an gulhdn ach nior...

Complementation

Complements of the verb bi and of the copula have already been discussed in 2.2.7 and its subsections. In transitive sentences we chiefly find adjectival complements, with some instances of prepositional phrases 93 id do chuid Idmlt salach is your share hand-gen-pl dirty 'Your hands are dirty 94 d'iarr mi ort do chuid Idmh a bheith glan request-past I on-you your share hand-gen-pl vpt be clean 'I asked you that your hands be clean' 95 an bhfuil sibh iirithe fallsa wh be-pres-dep you-pl risen...

Syntax

The syntax and morphology of Irish are well described and illustrated, though in a somewhat traditional format, in Graim ar 1960 . The best overall structural survey is Mac inri 1970 . Stenson 1981 provides an excellent account of a number of features of Irish syntax. Muiri 1982 gives a detailed taxonomic description of a large corpus of sentences from a dialect of Donegal Irish. A recent study of grammatical structure which covers examples from different dialect areas is Siadhail 1989 .

Being sentences

The substantive verb bi is used principally to indicate existence, position or state and also as an auxiliary verb in aspectually marked sentences see 2.2.9 . The order of elements in these sentences is verb subject complement and the elements which can appear in the complement position are adjectives, adverbs or prepositional phrases including verbal elements when aspectual forms are expressed . The appearance of nouns in this complement position is restricted and they are only found in...

Dialect differentiation

As suggested earlier and as illustrated in map 2.4 , there are three quite distinctive dialect areas still existing - those of Munster, Connacht and Ulster Irish Ulster Irish is the generally used linguistic term to cover Donegal Irish -and each of these presents varying degrees of internal geographical differentiation. Overall, a fundamental distinction can be made between northern and southern Irish, with Connacht and Ulster falling into the first grouping and Munster Irish into the latter....

Historical And Social Perspective

Map The Cromwellian Plantation

2.0 EXTERNAL HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE The Irish language Gaeilge is, together with Scottish Gaelic and Manx, a member of the Q-Celtic grouping of Insular Celtic. Although it has existed in Ireland from at least the early centuries of the Christian era, the date of its introduction into the country is unknown and a number of theories have been proposed. One attempts to derive the language from a suggested invasion of an Indo-European warrior aristocracy in the first millennium BC as part of the...

Vocabulary

To the non-linguist the area of lexical differentiation is perhaps the most obviously noticed and is certainly that which is most commented upon by native speakers who are acquainted with other dialects. Although the core vocabulary is by and large common to all dialects of Irish, there is a wide range available in the non-core or peripheral vocabulary and, in general, words which are specific to one dialect area and which are part of the active vocabulary there would not necessarily form part...

Donald Macaulay

1.0 THE celts origins, migrations, DISTRIBUTION The original homeland of the Celts if that is indeed a valid historical concept is unestablished no hypothesis of the many proposed has found general acceptance. The earliest named Celts in Greek and Latin sources are associated with two major central European Iron Age cultures, the Hallstatt, dated to the seventh century BC, and La Tene, dated to the fifth century BC. The archaeological evidence suggests a cultural continuity backwards through...

Modern Celtic languages

The relationships between the modern Celtic languages are as follows Insular Celtic Gaelic Goidelic Pictish Brittonic Brythonic Western Gaelic Eastern Gaelic Northern Brittonic Southern Brittonic Irish Manx Scottish Gaelic Welsh Cornish Breton 1.6 TYPOLOGICAL FEATURES OF MODERN CELTIC Some of the special typological features of the Celtic languages are archaic or conservative and some are innovative. Amongst the archaic features are the lack of a verb 'have' and the expression of the notion of...