Ooto

Piseis So while Goidelic iaso is a true cognate, i.e. an independent development of an Indo-European root, with loss of initial P as already mentioned, Brythonic lost its own word (unless it survives in the name of the River Usk (Wysg), as Sir Ivor Williams argues in his Ertwau Lleoedd), and had later to borrow the Latin word. 3. homo-, cf. Old High German gomo, surviving in Br utigam (bridegroom) 4. vir-. The Germanic cognate is Anglo-Saxon wer, as in English werewolf. Cf. the same parallel in...

Caesars Commentaries on the Gallic War to the

Proper Names in Gallic inscriptions on stone or from the various potteries on terra-cotta, to the 20 or so words in the Vienna Gaulish-Latin Glossary including avallo apple , to a few others recorded in ancient writers both Latin and Greek, and to such loan-words as we have just seen in Gallo-Latin, Gaulish deserves a place in our present study and will be called on whenever it has something to contribute Having divided the Celtic family of six into two equal parts according to their treatment...

RDdiichtha welsh

M. my heer W. fy nhir of motherland ii thy Irish, Gaelic, Manx aspirate Welsh, Cornish, Breton soften e.g. thy house iii his as for thy e.g. his dog iv her Goidelic leaves consonants unchanged Brythonic aspirates e.g. her dog Before a vowel, however, a her requires the insertion of H, except in Cornish. In Breton it is added to the pronoun e.g. her soul. W. ei henaid B. heh ene but C. hy enef. v our your their In Irish all eclipse in Gaelic, our and your,though the same words as the Irish ar,...

CNi folair

d Ta se d'fhiaohaibh orm It is obligatory on me e Ta orm It is on me f Is dual damh it is my duty Gaelic a Feumaidh me I must b Tha agam ri I have to Welsh gorfod to oblige or to be obliged, used either a personally in the analytic tenses of bod Y mae'r plant yn gorfod gweithio The children have to work or b impersonally, in the Past with i to Gorfu i'r plant weithio The children had to work. Cornish Bysy yu dhym It is important, urqent, for me to . Breton D'in eo da For me is it to cf. Irish...

And in emphasis An e rathad math a tha ann

V'ee ny ben vie She was a good woman The reason for this peculiar view of reality may have something to do with the fact that the verb Th as its Latin cognate Stat shows did not originally denote existence, and even now is strictly confined to impermanent states and conditions . Thus it has to be used in the same way before Participles referring to the position of the body e.g. I. Tamuid 'nar seasarrih We are in our standing up G. Tha sibh 'nur laighe You are in your lying down M. T'eh ny hoie...

Cha nel mee smooinaghtyn dy vel mish yn ohied phersoon

I don't think that I am the first person . . . where Irish would have gur rrtise . This distinction between the two senses of Being seems to have vanished from Brythonic. Traces of it may perhaps be seen in a the use by Cornish and Breton of a special form of the Verb To be for reference to Place as in Spanish b the Welsh defective verb OES There is used as in the Druidic question A oes hedduoh Is there peace cf. Cornish lis and Breton eus and c the ellipse of the Verb To be in Welsh also...

W Os na ddaw C Mar ny dhe B Ma ne zeuy ket

ii In Welsh negative Unreal Conditions pe na d is the norm Pe ne ddeuthai efy byddai'n ddrwg gennyf If he should not come, I should be sorry and mar ny is more usual in Cornish perhaps because marnas requires to be followed directly by the subject and the so-called impersonal construction, as above Mar ny dheffa ef, drok bya genef or, ctith a-m-bya . The notion unless is sometimes expressed in English by but for the fact that , were it not that. The equivalent expression is useful where there...

Y av fy ol C war ow lergh B war va Zeroh

All resort to the Verb To be with the preposition with Goidelic strictly at e.g. I have butter is literally There is butter with me Cornish and Breton reveal their close relationship in the possession of another way of saying I have etc., viz. In 9, we saw that Breton goes so far as to use this verbal periphrasis as an Auxiliary Verb with the Past Participle. Even stranger is its use of the Past Participle bet been after am eus etc. to mean had e.g. naon am eus bet I have had hunger i.e. been...

Zar a leagadh

Obs. i The existence of the Past Participle of some intransitive Verbs allows Irish to form a Perfect Active with the Verb To be as auxiliary cf. Verbs of Rest and Motion in French and Italian e.g. from imeacht to go away, and from teacht to come Bheidis imithe abhaile they would have gone heme T Tom s tagtha abhaile Thomas has come home A Welsh Continuous Perfect can be formed with the Perfect of Bod and the Verbal Noun e.g. Cornish has Perfects only for MOS go and DOS come , but like Old...

Ta na fir sa tigh

Y mae'r dynion yn y ty Obs. i This does not show in Goidelic, because the 3rd Person Plural is the same as the singular. ii Plural Personal Pronouns however take the Plural. iii The Rel.Pron. a takes a singular Person after a plural antecedent. 4. The sentence normally starts with the Verb - The woman came Obs. Gaelic bean and Cornish gwrek are used in the sense of wife Welsh benyw in the sense of female. This order is frequently disturbed by another...

So in Gaelic Is iad na Romanaigh a thug duinn It was

There is no need to say B'iad as the English has it, because it is always true that the Romans gave . In Manx Is and Ba hardly survive except a as a prefix to certain Adjectives in such verbal phrases as we have already seen 13 , e.g. Shegin dou there is compulsion to me, i.e. I must v. 20 b to emphasise the Subject of a sentence, e.g. She Yemaghyn t'aynin Irish Is Eireannaigh ata ionainn They are Irishmen, lit. It is Irish men they are . Obs . Introductory It is is...

Goidelic only

i ouid share with Possessive 223 Adjective ii s agam etc. as Possessive 223 Adjective iii The distinction of movement to 224 and from iv The 3rd Person Singular in -eas vi The position of the Direct 225 Object Pronoun vii casadh orm I met 225 viii Comparative and Superlative 226 xi Lack of some common verbs 229 C. Brythonic i The expression of ownership 231 ii Historic Infinitive 232 v Welsh to bring and to take 238 vi Cornish Defective Verbs 239 vii Certain Breton Prepositions 240 viii I have...

Daou gan naz plijont

iv With Particle RE in the Optative only Cornish and Breton C. Lowena re m bo May there be joy for me . B. Sant Ildud r am diwalol May St. Ildud protect me v After the meaningless Particle fe Welsh Fe m gwelodd She saw me Cf. i above Fe u ysgrifennwyd They were written vii With Relative Particle y Welsh lie y m ganed where I was born- Pan y i sefydlwyd When it was founded viu After Pa when , Ma if , Ra Optative that Breton P az kwelan When I see you M am gwel If he sees me R am kwelan 0 that I...