r . Bronze horse and rider from the seventh-century BC cult wagon model from

r Strettweg, Austria

Opposite Bronze cat handle from the first-century AD Snowdon Bowl, Gwynedd

1.1 Iron Age pot with deer motif, Roanne, France 3

2.1 Sixth-century BC bronze bull figurine, Byciskâla, Czechoslovakia 5

2.2 Sizes of modern and ancient Celtic animals compared 7

2.3 Iron Age farm animals: sheep and cattle 8

2.4 Second-to first-century BC bronze rein-ring decorated with bull heads, Manching, Bavaria 10

2.5 First-century BC to first-century AD bronze bull-head mounts from the Little Orme, Gwynedd 12

2.6 Third-century BC bronze cauldron with bull-head decoration, Brâ, Denmark 13

2.7 Fifth-century BC bronze sword-scabbard engraved with bulls, Hochscheid, Germany 14

2.8 Fourth-century BC silvered bronze brooch in the form of a ram's and horse's head, Durrnberg, 16 Austria

2.9 Romano-British bronze goat figurine, Caerleon, Gwent 18

2.10 Romano-British clay pig figurine, Birrenswark, Scotland 19

2.11 Fifth- to fourth-century BC bronze horse, Freisen, Germany 21

2.12 Romano-Celtic stone relief of mare and foal, Chorey, France 22

2.13 Second-century BC wooden deer effigy, Fellbach-Schmiden, Germany 23

2.14 Bronze fowl from a Romano-Celtic sanctuary at Estrées-Saint-Denis, France 24

2.15 Romano-British bronze dog, Kirkby Thore, Cumbria 25

2.16 First-century BC to first-century AD cat-handle on a bronze mirror, Holcombe, Devon 26

2.17 Ploughing scene on a prehistoric rock carving at Camonica Valley, north Italy 28

2.18 Two animals pulling a plough, on a rock carving at Camonica Valley 29

2.19 Wagon-pulling scene on a rock carving at Camonica Valley 30

2.20 Clay ram from a Romano-British infant's burial at Arlington, Cambridgeshire 31

2.21 Sixth-century BC bronze bowl-handle in the form of a cow and calf, Hallstatt, Austria 33

2.22 Bronze boar figurine, first century BC, Lun9ani, Romania 36

2.23 Detail of first-century BC/first century AD iron firedogterminal, Barton, Cambridgeshire 38

2.24 Iron Age iron cauldron-hooks, Danebury, Hampshire 40

2.25 Bronze seventh-century BC 'flesh-fork' decorated with birds, Dunaverney, Co. Antrim, Ireland 41

2.26 Romano-British bronze goat, Dumbuck, Scotland 43

3.1 Third-century BC bronze deer figurine, Rakos Csongrad, Hungary 45

3.2 First-century AD bronze plaque of slain boar, Muntham Court sanctuary, Sussex 47

3.3 Fourth-century BC ceramic flagon with incised frieze of wild animals, Matzhausen, Germany 48

3.4 Celtic coin depicting deer and boar, Maidstone, Kent 49

3.5 Detail of third- to second-century BC pot decorated with deer and wolf, Labatlan, Hungary 50

3.6 Fourth-century BC potsherd with stamped hares, Libkovice, Czechoslovakia 51

3.7 Bronze crow or raven from the Romano-Celtic shrine of Woodeaton, Oxfordshire 53

3.8 Stone image of man possibly wearing animal pelt, Cirencester, Gloucestershire 54

3.9 Sixth-century BC clay horseman, Speikern, Germany 57

3.10 Bronze brooch in the form of a collared hawk, Durrnberg, Austria 58

3.11 Romano-Celtic stone hunter-god with dog and hare, Touget, France 59

3.12 Stone hunter-god with bow and billhook, La Celle-Mont-Saint-Jean, France 61

3.13 Seventh-century BC rock carving depicting semi-human, semi-stag figure, Camonica Valley 64

4.1 Bronze horse-harness 'jangle', dating to 850 BC, Parc-y-Meirch, Gwynedd 67

4.2 Fourth-century BC sword-scabbard engraved with mounted warriors, Hallstatt, Austria 68

4.3 Hallstatt Iron Age bronze bucket-cover decorated with repoussé horsemen, Kleinklein, Austria 69

4.4 Late Iron Age bronze horse, Neuvy-en-Sullias, France 70

4.5 Plate from silver cauldron, showing Celtic army scene, second to first century BC, Gundestrup, 72 Denmark

4.6 Stone frieze of horses and severed heads from the Celticoppidum of Nages, France 73

4.7 Iron Age bronze brooch in the form of a horseman and a severed head, Numantia, Spain 74

4.8 Romano-Celtic stone relief of mounted warrior, Margidunum, Nottinghamshire 75

4.9 Celtic silver coin decorated with horse and wheel, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia 76

4.10 Detail of decoration on a seventh-century BC pot, showing incised horseman, Sopron, Hungary 78

4.11 Romano-Celtic bronze horse brooch, York 79

4.12 First-century AD bronze harness-mount inlaid with red enamel, Santon Downham, Norfolk 80

4.13 Celtic coin of the Redones, depicting female charioteer, France 81

4.14 First-century AD bronze horse mask, Melsonby, near Stanwick, Yorkshire 83

4.15 Reconstruction of an Iron Age chariot from Llyn Cerrig Bach, Anglesey 84

4.16 First-century BC enamelled bronze horned helmet, river Thames at Waterloo, London 88

4.17 Third- to second-century BC iron helmet with raven crest, Ciumeçti, Romania 89

4.18 Second-century BC bronze shield with boar motif, river Witham, Lincolnshire 90

4.19 Iron Age bronze helmet-crest in the form of a boar, Gaer Fawr, Powys 90

4.20 First-century AD bronze carnyx mouth in the form of a boar's head, Deskford, Grampian, 91 Scotland

5.1 Baseplate of silver cauldron, depicting a bull sacrifice, Gundestrup, Denmark 93

5.2 Iron Age ritual pit-burial of a goat, Danebury, Hampshire 95

5.3 Plate of silver cauldron depicting a triple bull-slaying scene, Gundestrup, Denmark 96

5.4 Ox skulls from the Celtic sanctuary of Gournay, France 98

5.5 Iron Age burial of a horse found at Stratford, East London 99

5.6 First-century BC/first-century AD iron firedog with bullhead terminals, Baldock, Hertfordshire 101

5.7 Iron Age ritual pit-burial of horse and dog, Danebury, Hampshire 103

5.8 The funeral cortège at the Soissons Iron Age chariot-grave, France 106

5.9 Late Iron Age bronze boar figurine, Neuvy-en-Sullias, France 110

5.10 Bronze dog from the Romano-Celtic sanctuary at Estrées Saint-Denis, France 111

5.11 Iron Age ritual pit-deposit of horse skull, Danebury, Hampshire 114

5.12 Late Iron Age bronze boar or pig, Hounslow, Middlesex 117

5.13 First-century AD iron firedog decorated with heads of bulls or horses, Capel Garmon, 120 Gwynedd

5.14 Fifth-century BC bronze brooch in the form of a ram, Aignay-le-Duc, France 123

6.1 Fourth-century BC bronze chariot-fitting ornamented with swans, Waldalgesheim, Germany 129

6.2 First-century BC crescentric bronze plaque decorated with bird-head triskele, Llyn Cerrig 130 Bach, Anglesey

6.3 Bronze sword-hilt in the form of composite creature, fifth century BC, Herzogenburg, Austria 131

6.4 Third-century BC iron sword-scabbard decorated with birds' heads, Cernon-sur-Coole, France 132

6.5 Top of iron scabbard decorated with triple bird design, c. 200 BC, Obermenzing, Germany 133

6.6 Carving of Celtic bull-horned helmets on a Roman triumphal arch, early first century AD, 134 Orange, France

6.7 Second-century BC bronze horned pony-cap, Torrs, Kelton, Scotland 135

6.8 Hallstatt Iron Age bronze vessel-stand decorated with suns and water-birds, Hallstatt, Austria 137

6.9 Fifth- to fourth-century BC bronze wine flagon decorated with wolf and birds, Basse-Yutz, 138 Moselle, France

6.10 Fifth-century BC bronze flagon handle, with human-headed animal, Dürrnberg, Austria 139

6.11 Third-century BC bronze horned head mount, Malomerice, Czechoslovakia 140

6.12 Detail of fourth-century BC, coral-inlaid bronze brooch with cat image, Chynovsky Hâj, Czechoslovakia 142

6.13 Second-century BC silver tore decorated with bulls' heads, Trichtingen, Germany 143

6.14 Detail of fifth-century BC gold neckring decorated with eagles, Besseringen, Germany 144

6.15 Iron Age bronze torc ornamented with wheel and birds, Marne, France 144

6.16 Gilt silver cauldron decorated with mythological scenes, second to first century BC, 146 Gundestrup, Denmark

6.17 Inner plate of Gundestrup Cauldron, depicting wheel-god and animals 147

6.18 Inner plate of Gundestrup Cauldron, depicting Cernunnos as Lord of Animals 148

6.19 Outer plate of Gundestrup Cauldron, depicting god with animal effigies 149

6.20 The 'Tarasque of Noves', third century BC, Noves, France 151

6.21 The White Horse at Uffington, first century BC, Uffington, Oxfordshire 153

6.22 Celtic coin decorated with horse and sun, Midlands, England 157

6.23 Early first-century BC silver coin depicting human head surmounted by boar, Esztergom, 158 Hungary

7.1 'Celtic Cranes', a drawing by Jen Delyth 163

7.2 Late Iron Age bronze boar from a chieftain's grave at Lexden, Colchester, Essex 165

7.3 Stone statue of Gaulish hammer-god with dog, Nîmes, France 167

7.4 Late Iron Age bronze figurine of stag, Milber Down, Devon 168

7.5 Iron Age jewellery in the form of wheel and birds, Nemejice, Czechoslovakia 172

7.6 Bronze cauldron-mount in the form of an owl, third century BC, Brâ, Denmark 173

7.7 Ceramic dish decorated with red-painted swans, 400 BC Radovesice, Czechoslovakia 175

7.8 First-century BC helmet cheek-piece with crane design, Smarjeta, Yugoslavia 177

7.9 Celtic coin depicting two cranes, Maidstone, Kent 178

7.10 Stone relief of Romano-Celtic god with ravens and dog, Moux, France 179

7.11 Triskele with birds' heads, on a first-century BC bronze plaque at Llyn Cerrig Bach, Anglesey 180

7.12 Romano-Celtic clay cockerel, Nijmegen, Netherlands 182

7.13 First-century BC bronze bull-mount, from a cart or chariot, Bulbury, Dorset 184

7.14 First-century BC/first-century AD bronze bull-head mounts: (a) Welshpool, Powys; (b) 185 Dinorben, Gwynedd

7.15 'Celtic horses', a drawing by Jen Delyth 188

7.16 Stone carving of Epona, Meursault, France 189

7.17 Detail of gold armring, in the form of a goddess and bird, fourth century BC, Reinheim, 191 Germany

7.18 Stone relief of Cernunnos, as part-stag part-snake, Cirencester, Gloucesterhire 194

8.1 Romano-British bronze dog, Canterbury, Kent 198

8.2 Bronze deer-hound from the third-century AD shrine of Nodens at Lydney, Gloucestershire 200

8.3 Stone relief of Nehalennia with her hound, Colijnsplaat, Netherlands 202

8.4 Stone figure of pilgrim carrying a pet dog, Fontes Sequanae, Dijon, France 203

8.5 Stone statuette of Epona, Alesia, France 204

8.6 Relief of Epona with foal, Brazey, France 205

8.7 Jupiter-giant column, with sky-horseman image, Hausen, Germany 209

8.8 Bronze horse dedicated to the god Segomo, Bolards, France 210

8.9 Romano-Celtic bronze horse, Carrawburgh, Northumberland 210

8.10 Bronze figurine of Sequana, in her duck-prowed boat, Fontes Sequanae, France 213

8.11 'Tarvostrigaranus', on an early first-century AD stone, Paris 215

8.12 Romano-Celtic clay dove, Nijmegen, Netherlands 216

8.13 The bear-goddess Artio, on a bronze group from Muri, Switzerland 217

8.14 Bronze triple-horned boar, Cahors, France 220

8.15 Bronze bull-figurine, Cirencester, Gloucestershire 221

8.16 Clay triple-horned bull, Colchester, Essex 223

8.17 Bronze group of Apollo and Sirona, Malain, France 225

8.18 Stone statue of Sirona, Hochscheid, Germany 226

8.19 Stone altar encircled by ram-horned snake, Lypiatt, Gloucestershire 229

8.20 Celtic silver coin depicting antlered image, c. AD 20, Petersfield, Hampshire 232

8.21 Stone relief of Cernunnos, Apollo and Mercury, Reims, France 233

8.22 First-century bronze bull-horned head, Lezoux, France 235

8.23 Stone bust of horned god, Moresby, Cumbria 236

8.24 Lead plaque of horned god, Chesters, Northumberland 238 9.1 Triple-horned bronze human head, first century AD, Hafenturm, Germany 240

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