CeLifc WorL

Celtic Maps

Angus Konsta

MERCURY BOOKS >/ LONDON

Historical Allas of the Cdtic World

Riblishcd in 2003 by Mcrcury Books I.ondon 20 Bloomsbury Street, London WC IB lJH

Text and Design O 2001 Thalamus Publishing

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the copyright owner.

Project editor: Neil Williams Maps and design: Roger Kean Lay-out: Joanne Dovey Illustrations: Oliver Frey

Four-color separation: Michael Parkinson and Thalamus Studios

ISBN: 1-904668-01-1 Jacket design: Cathy Rincon IVinted in China By Sun Fung Offset

PICTURE CREDITS

Picture research by Image Select International Limited and Thalamus Studios

Lesley and Roy Adkins Picture Library: 10, 14, .14, 70, 8$, 106, 122, 130, 131, 132, 155 (top), 186; A KG London: $8,66, 119; AKG London/ Erich Ixssing: 57, 87; Ancient Art and Architecture Collection: 146; Art Archive/ Archaeological Museum Brescia/ Gianni l>agli Orti: 37; Art Archive/ British Library : 160. >61; Art Archive/ DagU Orti: 65, 88 (left), 182; Art Archive/ Musée Alésia Alise Sainte Reine France/ Dagli Orti: 29, 36, 104, 105; Art Archive/ Musée Borely Marseille/ I)agli Orti: 171; Art Archive/ Musée des Antiquités St Germain en Laye/ Dagli Orti: 100, 168; Art Archive/ Musée Lapidaire Avignon/ Dagli Orti: 19 (top), 169; Art Archive, Museo Nazionalc Atestino F.ste/ Dagli Orti: 2-3; Art Archive/ Prehistoric Museum Moesgard Hojbjerg Denmark/ Dagli Orti 112-13; British Museum, London: 18, 19 (bottom), 20, 26, 27, 46, 47 (left), 48, 49, 59, 71, 73, 81, 99, 103, 111 (both), 114 (right), 116-117, 118, 120 (both), 126 (both), 127, 128, 129, 136, 138, 139 (top), 142, 144, 145, 147, 172, 176, 180, 181, 183; Celtic National Museum of Ireland, Dublin, Eire/Bridgeman Art Library: 141; Clwyd/R>wys Archaeological Trust: 61; Collections/Geoff Howard: 63; Collections/ Brian Shuel: 52; Crown copyright: 75, 125 (bottom), 156-57; Richard Cummins/CORBIS: 170, 175: Dominique Darr: 41; Dominique Darr/Ann Ronan: 43; Robert EftaU/CORBIS: 22; ET. Archive: 45; Macduff FA'crton/CORBIS: 94; Image Select International Limited/ Ann Ronan: 1, 5, 17, 42, 44, 92, 107, 110, 162, 163, 177; Martin Jones-Ecoscene/CORBIS: 165 (top); Caroline Knight-Kdifice/CORBIS: 155 (bottom); James Murdoch-Cordaiv Photo Library Ltd/CORBIS: 164; National Museum of Ireland: 72, 134, 140, 159; Dr. David Nicolle: 11, 30, 31, 74, 76, 77, 79 (both), 80, 91, 98, 124, 125 (top), 133, 148, 150, 151; Gianni Dagli Orti/CORBIS: 40; Rctures Colour Library : 62, 173; Pbst Office, Republic of Ireland: 174; RMN: 15,67; RMN/Arnaudet: 32,33; RMN Gérard Blot: 47 (right), 53 (top), 139 (bottom); RMS Loic Hamon: 21; RMN/ R.G. Ojeda: 7; RMN/J. Schormans: 6, 54, 67, 88 (right), 89, 114 (left), 115, 117 (right); Kevin Schafer/CORBIS: 12, 53 (bottom); Richard Hamilton Smith COKBIS: 187 (left); Spectrum Colour Library: 101, 184, 185; Ted Speigel/CORBIS: 107; Superetock: 149; Patrick Ward/CORBIS: 165 (bottom); Werner Forman Archive: 23, 60, 102, 143; Werner Forman Archive/National Museum, Copenhagen: 64; Wild Country/CORBIS: 123; Adam Woolfitt/CORBIS: 13, 187 (right).

Half title page:

Fragment from the Book of Kells (see pages 162-163).

Previous page:

A 4th-century bc Celtic votive plaque, depicting mounted Etruscan warriors from a time when the Celtic Venitii were penetrating Etruscan territory along the Po Valley in northern Italy.

Facing:

Decorative elements from pages of the Book of Kells.

Introduction 6

Chapter 1 - (Celtic Origins 8

Neolithic Europe 10

Bronze Age Europe 12

The Ptoto-Cclts 1 +

Hallstatt Culture 16

The Ccltic Identity 18

La Tcnc Culture 20

The Archaeological Evidence 22

Chapter 2 - The (kltic Peoples of Europe 24

The Gauls 26

Gallic Unity 28

The Bretons 30

The Iberian Celts 32

The Galatians 34

The Italian Celts 36

Chapter 3 - Early Celtic Art 38

The Origins of Ccltic Art 40

The Hallstatt Pfcriod 42

The Gundestrup Cauldron +4

Art of the Early La Tine 46

The Evolution of La Tine 48

Chapter 4 - Celtic Belief 50

The Celtic Calendar 52

Death and the Afterlife J4

Sacrifice 56

TheBogPtople 58

Sacred Landscape 60

Sacred Waters 62

Gods and Divinities 64

A Multi-Faceted Religion 66

Chapter 5 - The Celts of the British Isles 68

The Southern Britons 70

The Irish 72

The Caledonians and Rets 74

The Scots 76

The Welsh 78

The Cornish 80

Chapter 6 - The Roman (Conquests 82

The Cimbri Migration 84

Caesar's Conquest of Gaul 86

Alesia: The Final Battle 88

Conquest of Britain 90

Boudicca's Revolt 92

The Romans in Scotland 94

Chapter 7 - The Druids 96

Pbwer of the Druids 98

Witchcraft and Sorcery 100

Prophecy and Divination 102

Women and the ftiesthood 104

Druids in Celtic Mvth 106

Celts Migrations Map

Chapter 10 - The Renaissance of Celtic Art

Chapter 12 - Ccltic Mythology-

Gods and Origins 168

Life and Afterlife 170

Early Irish Literature 172

Early Irish Narratives 174

The Arthurian Legend 176

Chapter 13 - The Celtic Legacy

Past-Celtic Art 180

The Celtic Revival 182

The Ccltic Fringe 184

Celtic Consciousness 186

Museums & Further Reading 188

Late Ccltic Timelines 189

Index 191

haptcr 8 - The Celtic Warrior

Cult of the Warrior Hero 110

Ccltic Warfare of La Tenc 112

Ccltic Arms and Armor 114

Dressed to Kill 116

Late Celtic Warfare 118

Chapter 11 - Celts and Christianity

The Early Celtic Church 154

Monasticism 156

Conversion 158

Illuminated Manuscripts 160

The Book of Kells 162

Iona versus Rome 164

Chapter 9 - Celts and Anglo-Saxons

End of Roman Order 122

The Sub-Roman Celts 124

The Anglo-Saxons 126

The Saxon Conquests 128

Arthur of the Britons 130

The Celtic Twilight 132

Chapter 10 - The Renaissance of Celtic Art

A Celtic Artistic Rebirth 136

Irish Celtic Metalwork 138

The Celtic Hoards 140

Metalworking Techniques 142

Decoration of Metalwork 144

The Influence of Christianity 146

Stone Crosses 148

The Pictish Symbol Stones 150

Chapter 12 - Ccltic Mythology-

Gods and Origins 168

Life and Afterlife 170

Early Irish Literature 172

Early Irish Narratives 174

The Arthurian Legend 176

Chapter 13 - The Celtic Legacy

Past-Celtic Art 180

The Celtic Revival 182

The Ccltic Fringe 184

Celtic Consciousness 186

Museums & Further Reading 188

Late Ccltic Timelines 189

Index 191

haptcr 8 - The Celtic Warrior

Cult of the Warrior Hero 110

Ccltic Warfare of La Tenc 112

Ccltic Arms and Armor 114

Dressed to Kill 116

Late Celtic Warfare 118

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