Divided and defeated

The kingdom of Elmet covered much of central Britain, and during the mid-sixth century King Gwallawg of Elmet kept the Angles of Bernicia at bay. It corresponded approximately to the tribal area of the pre-Roman Brigantes. The region finally succumbed to the Saxons during the early seventh century. To the northwest, the kingdom of Rheged was centered around the city of Caeriiwelyd (Carlisle). Beyond it lay the Kingdom of Strathclyde, whose chief stronghold was the imposing rock fortress of Alcluyd (Dumbarton). For much of this period the kingdom was engaged in a defensive war with the Scots of Dal Riada. Along the southern shores of the Firth of Forth was the kingdom of Gododdin, whose king held the even more imposing hilltop fortress of Edinburgh. The Romans referred to these people as the Votadani. Beyond the Forth, the Picts of eastern Scotland and the Scots to the west have already been described on pages 74—75.

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