HE vowels are pronounced generally as in Italian. In the

Lithuanian diphthong ai the first element predominates almost to the suppression of the second. Russian "e has the sound of the English word yea or of ye in yes; Lithuanian e (often written ie) is pronounced like yea, but with a slight «-sound added (yaa), and u is equivalent to uoa (very like English whoaa); Lettish ee is simply e (English a in fate); Polish ie is like English ye in yes; Russian iy is practically the i in English pique. The Slavic i and u have only an etymological value, and are not pronounced; in the present study they are omitted when final, so that Perunu, e.g., is here written Perun.

J is like y (for convenience the Russian letters often transcribed ja, etc., are here given as ya, etc.); of the liquids and nasals, r and I between consonants have their vowel-value, as in English betterment, apple-tree (bettrment, appltree); r is pronounced in Polish like the z in English azure, and in Bohemian like r followed by the same sound of z; Polish t is a guttural (more accurately, velar) I; n has the palatal value of ni in English onion. The sibilant? is like sh in English shoe (in Lithuanian this sound is often written sz), and z (Lithuanian z) is like z in azure.

Of the consonants c (often written cz in Lithuanian) has the value of ch in church; ch that of the German or Scottish ch in ach, loch; c that of the German z (ts).

The consonant-groups in the present study are pronounced as follows: cz like ch in church; dz and dj like j in judge; rz like z in azure; sj like sh in shoe; and szcz like shch in fresh-chosen.

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