Further reading

Early Celtic Masterpieces from Britain in the British Museum. British Museum. 1975. Brewster, T. C. M. 'The Garton Slack chariot burial. East Yorkshire.' Antiquity, 45 1971 , 289-92. Connolly, P. Hannibal and the Enemies of Rome. Macdonald. Cunliffe, B. Iron Age Communities in Britain. Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1974. Cunliffe, B. Danebury Anatomy of an Iron Age llillfort. Batsford. 1983. Filip, J. Celtic Civilisation and its Heritage. Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. English...

Preface and acknowledgements

Celtic Settlements Europe

This volume stems from the notion that a greater knowledge about the continental Celtic tribes could usefully be made available as an adjunct to classical and archaeological studies by illustrating the exciting range of archaeological material available. The various references to the Celtic tribes and their customs might also be studied, on the one hand as linguistic texts and on the other hand in translation perhaps as historical documents. For the idea that the Romans were confronted by...

List of illustrations

Europe showing the main areas of Celtic influence Page 6 Kir. 2. Terracotta figurine of a barbarian warrior Page 9 Fig. 3. The 'Dying Gaul' Page 11 Fig. 4. Ambiorix. king of the Eburones. Tongern Belgium Page II Fig. 5. A Celtic Warrior an actor is made up for a BBC television programme Pate 11 Fig. 6. A fragment of a monumental bronze statue from Volubilis Morocco showing a captive Celt Page 15 Fig. 7. Chariot burial from La Gorge Meillet. Sommc Tourbc Marne, France Page 21 Fig. 8....

Celtic weapons

Prehistory Wood Shield

Diodorus Siculus has given us a comprehensive description of Celtic armour and weapons 'For arms they have man-sized shields decorated in a manner peculiar to them. Some of these have projecting figures in bronze, skilfully wrought not only for decoration but also for protection. They wear bronze helmets with large projecting figures which give the wearer the appearance of enormous size. In some cases horns are attached so as to form one piece, in others the foreparts of birds or quadrupeds...

Celtic Warriors

Ancient British Weapons Armor

Cover photograph An actor portraying a Celtic warrior. James Dyer. tibi lepidum nostrum libellum donamus. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Celtic warriors.- Shire archaeology 41 1.Celts-History 2. Arms and armor. Ancient- Great Britain 3.Arms and armor. Ancient-France. I. Title II. Ritchie, Graham 623.4'41'094 U805 Published bv SIIIRE PUBLICATIONS LTD Cromwell House, Church Street, Princes Risborough. Aylesbury. Bucks HP17 9AJ, UK. Copyright W. F. and J. N. G. Ritchie, 1985. All...

Who were the Celts

Gaulish Chieftain

The people known to archaeologists as Celts lived to the north of the Alps in what is now southern Germany and eastern France from about 5 M BC fig. 1 . They spoke a language which was ancestral to the Celtic languages of today Breton, Gaelic, Irish and Welsh. According to the Greek writer Ephorus, the Celts were one of the four great barbarian peoples, the others being the Persians, the Scythians and the Lybians. Celtic society comprised a number of tribes which were never fused into a unified...

The Celts through Greek and Roman eyes

Clothing Worn The Celts Before Romans

To the Greeks and Romans the Celts presented a terrifying sight because of their tall stature and their strange appearance. Tney were in many respects different from Mediterranean peoples. The Celts were by far the tallest race in the world, noticeable also for their white skin and fair hair. Although the Greeks and Romans had heard about the barbarian Celts, they first encountered them as warriors, and it was in battle that their enormous size and strange appearance first struck them. The...

The Celts in battle

Ancient Celts Battle

Polybius, who lived between about 202 and 120 BC, gives a full account of how the Celts fought at the battle of Telamon in 225 BC it is worth quoting at length because it highlights several recurring characteristics 'The Celts had drawn up the Gaesatae from the Alps to face their enemies on the rear and behind them the Insubrcs The Insubres and the Boii wore trousers and light cloaks, but the Gaesatae in their overconttdencc had thrown these aside and stood in front of the whole army naked,...

Warrior burials

Extended Inhumation

In common with many early societies, the dead were buried in full clothing, perhaps in some cases clad in especially fine ceremonial garments and accoutrements. The clothes rarely survive, although occasionally impressions and even fragments of textiles arc preserved on metal objects by the processes of corrosion the jewellery and metal fastenings, particularly those made of bronze and iron, remain in the graves for archaeologists to excavate and record. Weapons and even food and drink were...